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Refusing War, Affirming Peace
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summary
One of the untold stories of America’s World War II experience belongs to the thousands who refused military service for reasons of conscience, instead serving their country through non-military alternate service. Refusing War, Affirming Peace offers an intimate view of a single Civilian Public Service Camp, Camp #21 at Cascade Locks, Oregon, one of the largest and longest-serving camps in the system—and one of the most unusual.

Under the leadership of a remarkable director, Rev. Mark Y. Schrock, and some outstanding camp leaders, the men at Camp #21 created a vibrant community. Despite the requisite long days of physical labor, the men developed a strong educational program, published a newspaper and a literary magazine, produced plays and concerts, and participated in a special school and research project called the School of Pacifist Living. They also challenged the Selective Service System in two political protests—one concerning the threatened removal of a Japanese American, George Yamada, and a second concerning a war- related work project. Their story shows the CPS system at its best.

Jeffrey Kovac’s thorough research has resulted in one of the very few histories of a single Civilian Public Service Camp, shedding light on a generation of men who, during the “good war,” created a community for peace. Refusing War is an important contribution to World War II history, peace studies, and the history of the Pacific Northwest.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Frontmatter
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  1. Contents
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  1. Foreword
  2. pp. 9-11
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. 12-13
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  1. Chapter One: Introduction
  2. pp. 14-22
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  1. Chapter Two: Origins of CPS
  2. pp. 23-30
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  1. Chapter Three: The First Months: Organizing a Community
  2. pp. 31-56
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  1. Chapter Four: Summer and Fall 1942: Confrontations
  2. pp. 57-85
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  1. Chapter Five: 1943: In for the Long Haul
  2. pp. 86-115
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  1. Chapter Six: 1944: Transition to CO Leadership of the Camp
  2. pp. 116-138
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  1. Chapter Seven: 1945-1946: The End of the War and the End of CPS #21
  2. pp. 139-150
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  1. Chapter Eight: Conclusion
  2. pp. 151-158
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  1. Appendix: Complete Roster of CPS #21
  2. pp. 159-172
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  1. Notes & Bibliography
  2. pp. 173-186
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 187-192
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