Contents

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-29

In comparative politics, studies that attempt to explain the development of similar political phenomena across different countries are less common than the subdiscipline's title suggests. Even when the object of research is explicitly comparative rather than limited to a single nation, it is still frequently subject to one of the many forms of balkanization from which...

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2. The Context of Affirmative-Action Policy Development

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pp. 31-58

In this chapter I set out the conditions under which affirmative action became an attractive policy choice, both for social groups and for politicians seeking electoral support. The argument that the conditions of democratic politics create incentives for political actors to develop or respond to demands for policies accounts for the emergence of policies in...

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3. The Precursors of Affirmative-Action Policy

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pp. 59-85

In this chapter I explore the conditions under which African-Americans and untouchables were finally able to succeed in gaining benefits from the majorities that had historically oppressed and excluded them. The introduction, adoption, and expansion of affirmative-action policies was part of a longer process that included related but quite distinct programs to...

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4. Affirmative Action under Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon

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pp. 87-120

In the preceding two chapters I discussed the historical and cultural context in which affirmative action could emerge as a policy choice in the United States and India and the conditions that facilitated positive political responses to African-American and untouchable demands for such policies. In this chapter and the three that follow, I explore why affirmative...

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5. Affirmative Action under Carter, Reagan, and Bush

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pp. 121-143

In this chapter I analyze the final expansion of affirmative-action policies during the Carter administration and their subsequent retrenchment during the Reagan and Bush presidencies. During the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations, affirmative-action policy experienced a secular positive trend in which a voluntary, weak policy was transformed into a...

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6. Early Reservation Policy Development in India

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pp. 145-168

In this chapter and the one the follows, I analyze the development of affirmative action, known as reservation policies, in India. The Indian experience diverges in several ways from that of the United States. The antecedents to the final policies began much earlier, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The policies initially targeted untouchables, but they...

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7. Reservation Policies under Party Competition

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pp. 169-192

As long as Nehru was alive, his popular appeal and political power transcended factional conflicts within the Congress party and ensured that resolutions would be found to conflicts that had the potential to be damaging. After his death, however, the diversity within the Congress, which had been one of its greatest assets, began to present grave problems. The party...

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8. Conclusion

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pp. 193-208

At the beginning of this book I set forth three goals for this analysis. The first goal was to gain a greater understanding of the politics and process of affirmative-action policy development in the United States and India. Affirmative action is part of a class of policies, which might be termed ascriptive policies, that generate considerable conflict but endure, even in...

Notes

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pp. 209-213

Bibliography

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pp. 215-225

Index

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pp. 227-230