Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Frontmatter

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

This book is a small beginning in my attempt to understand why some social divisions are more salient than others. The particular angle this enterprise focuses on is the role that political parties can play in exacerbating some differences while muting others. The book also represents an effort to understand Indian party politics. As I developed an interest in ...

List of Figures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xii

List of Tables

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xiv

read more

1. State Structures, Associational Life, and the Social Basis of Party Systems

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-24

A dramatic shift took place in Indian party politics during the elections of 1996 and 1998, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a right wing religious party, emerged as the largest party in parliament. Even more surprising was the composition of the ruling coalitions. Regional political parties governed India after the 1996 elections and are key elements of the ...

read more

2. Central, State, and Local Governments in India

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 25-50

The dominant paradigm in Indian politics at independence was that the government would be the engine of economic and social transformation. Most of this change would be carried out by the national government. State governments were made partners in this process, while local governments were not incorporated into the enterprise of nation building and ...

read more

3. Electoral Laws, Associations, and the Organization of the Catchall Congress Party

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 51-78

Politicians in India, because of the federal structure of the Indian nation state, seek to control the main instruments of power and authority, namely, the central and state governments. Most prominently, the Congress Party was organized coterminously with the center and the states in the two decades following independence. The federal structure, which ...

read more

4. Electoral Competition and the Growth of Central Intervention in the States

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 79-108

It has been argued thus far that the Congress Party was a coalition of state-based parties. This territorial orientation of the party is influenced by social divisions, particularly caste and language, which are more politically salient at the state level than they are at the national level. These demarcations were reinforced by institutional structures-the federal ...

read more

5. Building Coalitions in the Indian States

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 109-134

The Congress Party, even after 1967, remained a party that mobilized sup port on a state by state basis and one whose social basis was state specific. Within the states, however, the Congress faced increased electoral competition. Most of this competition came from state-specific parties. The increased competition was not due to the entry of new groups into the elec- ...

read more

6. From a Catchall to a Cleavage-Based Party System in an Indian State: Uttar Pradesh

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 135-158

In Uttar Pradesh, the Congress Party has virtually no electoral presence in 1998. The chief reason for the Congress's decline in UP is that the catchall politics associated with the Congress and Janata parties has been replaced with a party system rooted in social cleavages. In 1998, in Uttar Pradesh the state that had provided all of Congress's prime ministers except ...

read more

7. State Policy, Party Politics, and the Rise of the BJP

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 159-176

Alongside the decline of the Congress Party and the emergence of a cleavage-based party system in Uttar Pradesh, another key development in con temporary Indian electoral politics is the electoral success of the BJP. In addition to the forward castes, who voted for the BJP because of its stance on the Mandal Commission, the middle classes, too, were mobilized by the ...

read more

8. The Centrality of Parties to Indian Politics: The Politics of Economic Reform and Collective Violence

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 177-194

The emergence of links between social cleavages and party systems in India can be attributed to electoral competition over the policies of an activist state in the absence of associational life. Political parties in India were able to exercise this influence because in the absence of associational life they provide a key link between state and society. As a result, political ...

read more

9. Forming Links between Social Cleavages and Party Systems: Algeria and Spain

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 195-216

So far we have noted that weak associational life and the large role played by a state allowed political parties to structure the relationship between social cleavages and the party system in India. While the analysis has been limited to the Indian case, the argument is applicable in a number of different settings. In Algeria, in the local elections of 1990 a religious party, ...

read more

10. Conclusion: Rethinking Party Systems and Social Cleavages

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-224

Understanding the relationship between social cleavages and party systems has undergone a transformation since the theory was first posited by Lipset and Rokkan (1967). In its initial formulation, the links between social cleavages and party systems were seen as emerging from the national and industrial revolutions that characterized Europe in the begin ...

Appendixes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 225-230

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 231-254

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 255-274

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 275-287