Cover

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Title page, Copyright page

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Contents

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Maps

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pp. viii-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xx

I first developed an interest in Bagone-giizhig (Hole in the Day) as a small child. Traveling with my family throughout Minnesota’s lake country, I listened to my father’s stories about the father and son chiefs, Fort Ripley, and other people and places of importance. As an adult I returned to those stories, people, and places determined to fill in the missing pieces...

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Prologue

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pp. 3-8

Bagone-giizhig the Younger, also known as Hole in the Day the Younger, acquired many enemies during his reign as a principal chief of the Mississippi Ojibwe (Chippewa) in central Minnesota. From the time he assumed his father’s name and chieftainship until his assassination more than two decades later, Bagone-giizhig relied on his many friends and followers to keep his enemies at bay. He shrewdly cultivated relationships with Americans and with Dakota and Ojibwe leaders to make himself an important treaty...

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Chapter 1

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pp. 9-34

The assassination in 1868 of Mississippi Ojibwe chief Bagone-giizhig the Younger, one of history’s best-known Ojibwe leaders, was one of the most intriguing stories of the nineteenth century. Many people had motive and the triggermen were known. But the conspiracy was a well-kept...

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Chapter 2

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pp. 35-62

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3

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pp. 84-102

Hole- in- the- Day was the only man in the nation who was feared by the traders and Government officers. I do not mean that they feared personal injury, or were in danger of coming into personal conflict until the late 1830s, American officials lacked the military power and diplomatic groundwork to seize Indian lands in Minnesota. But the declining fur trade put pressure on Indian communities to find other ways to acquire trade goods. Fort Snelling ...

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4

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pp. 103-137

In his home [Bagone- giizhig the Younger] had many white servants native style with a touch of civilized elegance, wearing a coat and leggings of fine broadcloth, linen shirt with collar, and, topping all, a handsome black or blue blanket. His moccasins were of the finest much to his personal appearance. He was fond of entertaining and ...

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5

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pp. 138-165

In 1862, irate ojibwe took dozens of white prisoners and destroyed white churches, trading posts, and houses at Leech Lake, Crow Wing, and ottertail City. These events have been overshadowed by the more widespread concurrent violence of the u.S.–Dakota Con-flict in southern Minnesota. exploring how the u.S.–ojibwe Conflict developed and why it stopped without large- scale loss of life brings to life relations between American settlers, the ojibwe, the Dakota, ...

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6

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pp. 166-203

Though it may cost me my liberty, it is my duty, and I will continue to speak and act also, till the wrongs of my people shall be righted.If we did kill anybody them days, it was no crime; you couldn’t hang The events of 1862 had serious long- term consequences for the ojibwe in Minnesota. The Dakota and the Ho- Chunk were removed, the united States increased its military presence, and the pace of white settlement escalated dramatically.3 For a time ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 204-230

...easier for the agents to get along with these Indians after Hole- in- the- Day’s death, as he was the smartest Indian chief the Chippewa never stoops the soaring vulture on his quarry in the desert, on the sick or wounded bison, but another vulture, watching from his high aerial look- out, sees the downward plunge, and follows; and a third ...

Appendix A

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pp. 231-232

Appendix B

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pp. 233-235

Appendix C

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pp. 236-237

Appendix D

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pp. 238-242

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 243-245

I began researching Bagone- giizhig in earnest as a graduate stu-dent at the university of Minnesota in the early 1990s. While I was there this project was blessed by the guidance of many people, especially Jean o’Brien- Kehoe, russell Menard, John Howe, sistance of numerous ojibwe and Dakota cultural carriers, elders, and tribal historians who contributed their knowledge about tribal seph Auginaush, richard “Dick” Barber, Thomas Beardy, edward ...

Notes

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pp. 246-283

Bibliography

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pp. 284-307

Index

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pp. 308-318