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Hardaway Revisited

Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast

Written by I. Randolph Daniel

Publication Year: 1998

This provocative reanalysis of one of the most famous Early Archaic archaeological sites in the southeastern United States provides a new model for understanding prehistoric settlement patterns.

Since the early 1970s, southeastern archaeologists have focused their attention on identifying the function of prehistoric sites and settlement
practices during the Early Archaic period (ca. 9,000-10,500 B.P.). The Hardaway site in the North Carolina Piedmont, one of the most important
archaeological sites in eastern North America, has not yet figured notably in this research. Daniel's reanalysis of the Hardaway artifacts
provides a broad range of evidence—including stone tool morphology, intrasite distributions of artifacts, and regional distributions of stone
raw material types—that suggests that Hardaway played a unique role in Early Archaic settlement.

The Hardaway site functioned as a base camp where hunting and gathering groups lived for extended periods. From this camp they exploited nearby stone outcrops in the Uwharrie Mountains to replenish expended toolkits. Based on the results of this study, Daniel's new model proposes that settlement was conditioned less by the availability of food resources than by the limited distribution of high-quality knappable stone in the region. These results challenge the prevalent view of Early Archaic settlement that group movement was largely confined by the availability of food resources within major southeastern river valleys.


Published by: The University of Alabama Press


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pp. ix-x


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pp. xi-xvi

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pp. xvii-xix

This book represents a revised copy of my dissertation that I submitted to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) in 1994. While conducting this research, I was fortunate to receive considerable guidance and support, which I wish to acknowledge here. Special thanks are due to the members of my doctoral committee: Steve Davis, Al Goodyear ...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-10

During the summer of 1948, test pits placed in two sites along the Yadkin River demonstrated for the first time that stratified alluvial sites of some antiquity existed in the Carolina Piedmont (Coe 1964:8–9). There, at the Lowder’s Ferry and Doerschuk sites, Joffre Coe began to make temporal sense of a “hodgepodge of projectile point types” previously known...

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2. Excavations at Hardaway

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pp. 11-37

This chapter presents the history of excavations at Hardaway, a revieof the site’s stratigraphy, and a discussion of the features and units selected for analysis. Because I was not present during the fieldwork, I had to familiarize myself with the excavations through the field notes, maps, and photographs on file at the Research Laboratories of Anthropology. In addition, ...

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3. Stone Raw Materials

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pp. 38-48

This chapter briefly describes the stone types found in the Hardaway assemblage; possible source locations of these raw materials are also noted. Broadly speaking, the raw materials identified here can be divided into four stone types: metavolcanic and metasedimentary stone, chert, and quartz. The chert and quartz categories reflect current archaeologically ...

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4. Artifacts

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pp. 49-129

The artifacts recovered from Hardaway were limited almost entirely to stone tools and flaking debris. Excluding points that postdate the Early Archaic period, the first portion of this chapter presents a detailed morphological analysis of over 2,000 tools from the selected units described in the previous chapter and also makes some tentative inferences about tool ...

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5. The Organization of an Early Archaic Technology: Assemblage Composition and Site Function at Hardaway

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pp. 130-146

Thus far I have detailed the classification of the chipped-stone tools found at Hardaway. In this chapter, I investigate site function at Hardaway by examining the composition of the site’s stone tool assemblage. This examination involves placing morphological types in the assemblage into functional and organizational (i.e., curated vs. expedient) categories to ...

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6. Intrasite Spatial Analysis

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pp. 147-169

The analysis of the spatial distributions of artifacts has led to important insights concerning the spatial structure of several early prehistoric hunter-gatherer sites in North America. In particular, the analyses of the spatial distributions of stone artifacts on northeastern Paleo-Indian sites have been successful in identifying discrete clusters of artifacts. Moreover, ...

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7. Uwharrie Rhyolite and Early Archaic Settlement Range in the Carolina Piedmont

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pp. 170-186

An important aspect of this study has been the identification of the sources of rhyolite so abundant at Hardaway (Chapter 3). In this chapter, the results of an extensive artifact collections survey documents the wide-spread movement of rhyolite beyond the Hardaway site. Given the quarry-related function of Hardaway, tracing the movement of Uwharrie rhyolite...

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8. Rethinking Early Archaic Settlement

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pp. 187-204

In this chapter, I reexamine current thinking regarding Early Archaic settlement. I begin by critically assessing certain assumptions underlying the band-macroband model. The results of this discussion, when combined with the preceding analyses, permit Hardaway to be placed in a regional context. Finally, the implications of this work make possible the ...

Appendix A. Variables Recorded in the Analysis

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pp. 205-212

Appendix B. Artifact Counts

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pp. 213-228

Appendix C. Data from the Collections Survey

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pp. 229-236


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pp. 237-248


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pp. 249-251

E-ISBN-13: 9780817383091
Print-ISBN-13: 9780817309008

Page Count: 272
Publication Year: 1998

OCLC Number: 44958019
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Hardaway Revisited

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Subject Headings

  • Southern States -- Antiquities.
  • Indians of North America -- Southern States -- Antiquities.
  • North Carolina -- Antiquities.
  • Hardaway Site (N.C.).
  • Paleo-Indians -- North Carolina.
  • Paleo-Indians -- Southern States.
  • Indians of North America -- North Carolina -- Antiquities.
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