Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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pp. vii-ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiii

After research on the interaction of ideology, the political economy, and social change in U.S.-Mexican relations during the 1860s, the study of ideology and change related to the liberal revolutions of Central America seemed a logical second project. From fifteen years' work in the archives and libraries of Central America, Europe, and...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-9

Since the sixteenth century, when the European maritime nations first realized that only a narrow strip of land separated the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the Panama isthmus, Middle America (the Panama and Tehuantepec isthmuses and those states forming the Central American Federation-Guatemala, EI Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua...

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1. Foundations of German Interest in Central America, 1820–1848

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pp. 10-20

The alliance of European powers that defeated Napoleon twice dissolved in the post-1815 years. In a series of congresses, conferences, and confidential negotiations, the great and near-great powers of Europe, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Prussia, Spain, and Savoy each hoped to facilitate a (favorable) balance of power. The Napoleonic...

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2. Prussia and Commerce with the Pacific Basin, 1848–1851

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pp. 21-33

The revolutions of 1848, especially the Frankfurt Parliament, profoundly affected Prussia and Austria. German liberals were discredited for their indecisive conduct in 1848-1849. The Frankfurt Parliament swayed between a gross and kleindeutsch resolution to stabilize the German political order. Since the Parliament...

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3. Franz Hugo Hesse's Mission to Central America, 1851–1858

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pp. 34-54

During the decade of the Hesse mission, German interests were permanently established in Middle America. Mid-nineteenth century Prussian policy and activity revealed much about the worldwide nature of imperialism and about the integration of industrializing centers with peripheral agrarian and raw material producing areas...

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4. Bismarck and the Foundations of the German Empire, 1858–1871

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pp. 55-66

In the 1860s and 1870s, the Prussian government unified most Germanspeaking states into an empire. After decades of group activity sponsored by bodies ranging from political clubs to singing associations, a series of wars-against Denmark in 1864, Austria-Hungary in 1866, and France in...

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5. Defining Germany's Role in Central America, 1871–1885

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pp. 67-84

Prussian success in guiding a kleindeutsch unification into an empire ruled by the Hohenzollern family was a marvel of insight, determination, and slyness. The peace signed at Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors in 1871 extracted a large gold indemnity from France. Historian Wolfgang Zank...

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6. Aggressive Participation in the New World, 1885–1898 [Includes Image Plate]

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pp. 85-106

Unified Germany was a great power in the center of Europe. With several great powers and a dozen ethnic minorities, most politically organized, near its borders, Wilhelmine Germany pursued vigorous economic growth to cover the material costs of security and to establish a living...

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7. Aggressive Penetration and National Honor, 1898–1906

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pp. 112-136

In 1898, after several decades in which U.S. authorities commonly used firm language or ship movements to enhance their desired policy in the Caribbean, the U.S. government underscored its willingness and intention to use force to define and extend its control in the Caribbean. It went to war with Spain to secure access to the Caribbean basin...

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8. Apogee of German Power in Central America, 1906–1914

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pp. 137-153

Germany needed to sustain its economic growth to satisfy the demands of its capitalists, workers, and those various patriotic groups that considered security and well-being a byproduct of the nation's material growth. Historian Wolfgang Mommsen recognized that "German banks...

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9. U.S. Displacement of German Economic Power during World War I

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pp. 154-172

Before the Great War the German government had used colonization, investment, trade, and cultural institutions to compete for influence and prestige on the periphery. It expected these ingredients to generate the mix of popular, elite, and governmental influences necessary to expand...

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10. Reestablishing Germany's Role, 1920–1925

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pp. 173-189

German reentry into Central America's political economy and culture faced obstacles. The U.S. government remained determined to dominate the Caribbean-isthmian area. The loss of political and economic power by Britain, Germany, and France during the war eased the ability of the...

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11. A Revived German Presence in Central America, 1924–1929

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pp. 190-206

Germany's leaders labored to continue the nation's recovery in international trade and investment. They promoted economic and political stability and the maintenance of an elevated living standard. The leaders of the German political economy dreamt of a great Soviet market early...

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Conclusion and Epilogue

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pp. 207-212

The focus on British and U.S. relations with Central America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has veiled German involvement in Central America. German relations with Central America changed between 1823 and 1929. From 1823 to the 1850s, several German states...

Appendix: Tables

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pp. 213-226

Notes

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pp. 227-286

Research Resources on Germany in Central America

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pp. 287-294

Primary Materials and Published Sources

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pp. 295-302

Index

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pp. 303-317