Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Frontmatter

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. ix

... We gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of our spouses, Sue Smith, Maureen Williams, Ana Houseal, and Terri Henderson; our student assistants, Molly Schlumbohm and Taylor Gerling Shore; the Tallgrass Prairie Center office manager, Mary Weld; our manuscript review ...

read more

Why This Manual?

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xv

Tallgrass prairie is the most decimated ecosystem in continental North America; less than 2 to 3 percent of the original landscape remains. The blacksoil portion suffered the greatest loss as extensive conversion to cropland between 1830 and 1900 obliterated the prairie, destroying the complex, interwoven fabric of this natural system. Gone from the landscape is the capability for expeditious ...

read more

Introduction: Returning Prairie to the Upper Midwest

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xvii-xxi

An immense landscape of grass, wind, and sky once occupied midcontinental North America. This distinctive landscape dominated the horizon from the forest margins of Indiana and Wisconsin to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to the boreal forest of central Canada. Early French explorers traversing the eastern edge of this wilderness used “prairie,” ...

Part 1. Reconstruction Planning

read more

1. Preparing and Planning for a Reconstruction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-11

Prairie reconstructions should be modeled after remnant prairies. Before beginning a reconstruction project, become familiar with local prairie remnants and available information on prairie reconstruction. A well-designed and well-executed plan is crucial to a successful reconstruction. Components of the plan should include goals and objectives, timeline, budget, site description, designated reference site, description of tasks ...

read more

2. Seed Source and Quality

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 12-22

In prairie restoration, seed source and quality are of critical importance. Many seek to use the most appropriate genetic source for restoration. Seed source should not be confused with where the seed is produced or sold; rather, source refers to the original remnant source of the seed. Seed quality is a measure of purity and viability, as tested by a certified seed-testing lab. The following ...

read more

3. Designing Seed Mixes / Dave Williams

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 23-36

A well-planned seed mix is essential to reconstructing a diverse and stable plant community. Selecting species for any native planting involves knowing the physical characteristics of the site (soil type, hydrology, slope, aspect, and sunlight exposure), then choosing the most appropriate native plants for that site. All native plantings should include grasses, sedges, and forbs (both legume and nonlegume species). The seed mix should also include annual, biennial, and ...

Part 2. Implementing Reconstruction

read more

4. Site Preparation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 39-55

Site preparation involves altering the existing vegetation and soil structure in advance of seeding. The goal is to increase emergence, growth, and survival of the seeded natives by removing thatch, improving seed-to-soil contact, and reducing weeds. From construction sites to cornfields, site conditions can be drastically different and require specific site-preparation techniques. There are ...

read more

5. Seeding

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 56-72

Deciding when to plant a prairie is a challenge. Some species establish better when planted in the spring, other species establish better when planted in the fall, and some species are hard to establish whenever they are planted. Seeding rates of some species may need to be increased depending on when and how they are planted. ...

read more

6. First-Season Management

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 73-81

The establishment of a prairie plant community takes 3 to 5 years. Without early management of the vegetation during this critical time, weeds and woody plants will displace the emerging and newly established native plants, resulting in a weedy plant community that will persist for many years. The goal aft er seeding is to reduce unwanted plants — most commonly weeds — and stimulate ...

read more

7. Evaluating Stand Establishment and Seedling Identification

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 82-101

This chapter is intended to assist the practitioner-landowner in sampling and evaluating prairie plant establishment in a new seeding. Deciding where to sample, how many samples to take, what to measure, and how to analyze the data for an assessment of prairie plant establishment are discussed. This chapter outlines techniques for developing seedling identification skills to insure an ...

Part 3. Prairie Restoration and Management

read more

8. Identifying and Assessing Remnants

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 105-118

Growing public awareness of tallgrass prairie will, we hope, lead to the identification, preservation, and management of more prairie remnants. Efficient use of limited resources requires strategies for locating, preserving, and managing these remnants. This chapter will highlight the value of prairie remnants, discuss where they might be found on the midwestern landscape, and consider attributes ...

read more

9. The Restoration of Degraded Prairie Remnants

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 119-133

Heavily grazed or brushy sites with relict prairie plants oft en appear to be so badly degraded or damaged that there is little hope of restoring the prairie. However, it is possible to restore these sites by eliminating the causes of degradation, repairing the damages, and adapting techniques used in prairie management. Depending on the condition of the degraded remnant, restoration measures ...

read more

10. Prairie Management [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 134-153

Presettlement prairies were shaped and maintained by wildfire, herbivores, and climatic extremes. Today’s prairies are mostly small, isolated patches that require active management to maintain their diversity. This chapter focuses on the management techniques needed to maintain the integrity and diversity of prairie remnants, restored remnants, and established reconstructions. ...

Part 4. Special Cases

read more

11. Prairie in Public Places

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 157-169

Prairie reconstruction in public spaces challenges our perception of urban landscaping. These plantings are quite different from traditional “neat and tidy” landscapes. Prairie reconstruction projects can be very visible and controversial in any community and can elicit strong public responses, both pro and con. This chapter deals with how to positively influence public perceptions. ...

read more

12. Roadsides and Other Erodible Sites

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 170-192

Conditions found in roadside rights-of-way create significant challenges for prairie reconstruction. Slopes are oft en too steep for tractor and drill. Compacted soil requires more aggressive site preparation. Steep slopes and concentrated water fl ow increase the need for soil stabilization. And proximity to motor vehicle traffic makes it harder to manage the plantings once they are ...

read more

13. Small Prairie Plantings

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 193-206

Small prairie plantings are used as backyard habitats, outdoor classrooms, community entryways, and low-input landscaping (reduced mowing, watering, fertilizing, and pesticide use) around homes and businesses. These plantings can range in appearance from natural-looking attempts to reconstruct a piece of prairie to more formally designed prairie gardens. Placed in high-visibility locations and viewed up close on a daily ...

Part 5. Native Seed Production

read more

14. Seed Harvesting

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 209-224

Seed of many native species is now commercially available for prairie reconstructions, large or small. Yet many people have an interest in growing and collecting native species for butterfly gardens, backyard and schoolyard wildlife habitats, and prairie restorations. Native seed may be harvested as single or mixed species from remnant or reconstructed prairies or from seed nursery ...

read more

15. Drying, Cleaning, and Storing Prairie Seed

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 225-238

Postharvest processes include drying, precleaning, cleaning, and storing seed properly. If the seed is collected in bulk and immediately spread on a restoration site, little processing is necessary. If the seed is to be stored for any length of time, the next step is to properly care for the harvest. Drying, cleaning, and storage requirements for prairie seed aft er collecting will depend on how and which species are collected, the length of time stored, and the intended seeding ...

read more

16. Propagating and Transplanting Seedlings

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 239-260

Propagating and transplanting seedlings of native species present unique challenges. Most prairie species have seed dormancy mechanisms that must be overcome for good seed germination to occur in a greenhouse environment. Potting containers ideally should accommodate the deep root systems that develop in seedlings. Included in this chapter are tips on greenhouse propagation, ...

read more

Epilogue: The Future of Tallgrass Restoration

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 261-263

Writing this guide was a marvelous experience, both invigorating and reflective. As the four of us wrote various sections and critiqued one another’s writings, we engaged in some very stimulating discussions. In addition, it caused me to pause and reflect on my nearly 40 years of experience with prairie restoration and reconstruction. ...

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 265-272

Common and Scientific Names of Plants Mentioned in This Guide

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 273-283

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 285-293

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 295-301