Contents

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pp. xi-xv

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Foreword by Albert O. Hirschman

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pp. 18-19

... The book uses the interdisciplinary methodology of pointing to similar ideas expressed by a variety of other authors in different ‹elds: management theory by Douglas McGregor, psychotherapy by Carl Rogers, community organizing by Saul Alinsky, community education by Paulo Freire, spiritual counseling by Søren Kierkegaard, and economic development by E. F. Schumacher and myself. ...

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Preface

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pp. xix-xxiv

This book grew out of my collaboration with Joseph Stiglitz as one of his economic advisors and speech writers during his tumultuous tenure (1997–99) as chief economist (and senior vice president) of the World Bank. One of the principal themes of the book, the idea of autonomy respecting help (assistance that actually helps people to help themselves) was vigorously supported not only by Joe but by James Wolfensohn, the president of the Bank.1 The idea was expressed as having the ...

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1 Introduction & Overview

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pp. 1-24

The World Bank, the leading multilateral development agency, begins its mission statement with a dedication to helping people help themselves, and Oxfam, a leading nongovernmental organization (NGO) working on development, states that its “main aim is to help people to help themselves.”1 Perhaps the most successful example of development assistance in modern history was the Marshall Plan, which “did what it set out to do—help people help themselves” (Stern 1997). ...

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2 Internal & External Motivation: Beyond Homo Economicus

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pp. 25-51

In the World Bank, I have heard it said that if economists understand anything, it is incentives. Effective development assistance is supposed to lie in engineering the right motivation—“getting the incentives right.” The economic model of Homo economicus as a utility-maximizing or incentive-driven creature is, however, incomplete in one basic respect: it leaves out the question of whether the human source of the incentives or motivation is external (other people) or internal (own self). ...

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3 The Indirect Approach

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pp. 52-67

In the opening quotation of the book, John Dewey gives what is perhaps the best one-sentence summary of this book and of helping theory in general where he note that the “best kind of help to others”—helping them help themselves—is indirect rather than direct and is enabling rather than controlling. ...

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4 Indirect Approaches: Intellectual History

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pp. 68-99

Our topic is development assistance, the helper-doer relationship when the helper is some individual or organizational promoter of development and the doer is an individual or organization undertaking developmental activities. Since most conventional development assistance or help is actually unhelpful in the sense of overriding or undercutting self-help, our task is to build the intellectual foundation for an ...

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5 Autonomy-Respecting Development Assistance

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pp. 100-120

After our Cook’s tour of indirect autonomy-respecting methods across disciplines and across time, this chapter focuses on elaborating the five themes (the three Dos and two Don’ts) in the context of economic development. Direct quotations are gathered together in the appendix on the five themes by the eight thinkers: Albert Hirschman, E. F. Schumacher, Saul Alinsky, Paulo Freire, John Dewey, Douglas ...

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6 Knowledge-Based Development Assistance

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pp. 121-148

In this chapter and the next, the focus is on the cognitive side of autonomy- respecting assistance. The helper is a development agency, and the doers are some group in need of development assistance (e.g., policymakers and government officials in a developing country). One prominent case of knowledge-based development assistance is the vision of the World Bank operating as the “knowledge bank.”1 How do ...

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7 Can Development Agencies Learn & Help Clients Learn?

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pp. 149-185

In this chapter, our focus is on the organizational structure of the helping agency from the cognitive point of view. In the modern world it is now commonplace to accent the importance of intellectual capital and knowledge management. Most organizations want to be seen as learning organizations. Yet many old habits persist that are directly opposed to learning and to the advancement of knowledge. The new rhetoric of ...

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8 Case Study: Assistance to the Transition Countries

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pp. 186-206

My primary purpose is to lay the intellectual foundations for an alternative philosophy of development assistance. For concrete examples (mostly negative), I have focused on the “case study” of the World Bank and to a lesser extent the other large multilateral and bilateral agencies (e.g., IMF and USAID). The transition from communism to a private property market economy presented a unique challenge to the major development assistance agencies. A new regional development ...

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9 Hirschmanian Themes of Social Learning & Change

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pp. 207-239

Within development theory, the best exposition of the alternative approach espoused here is the still classic work of Albert Hirschman. My purpose in this chapter is to revisit Hirschman along with some related thinkers from adjacent fields to see if new light can be thrown on the current debate about the methods of development assistance. ...

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10 Conclusions

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pp. 240-252

... Communism, as it actually existed, was not an alternative to a modern industrial society but a proposed alternative route to industrialization (see Griffin 1989). The route to industrialization provided by the West in the post–World War II period was “development” as engineered by all the assistance and aid agencies of the last half century. Each side in this developmental cold war offered the Third World its blueprints for accelerating history and making a jump over the chasm ...

Appendix. Eight Thinkers on the Five Themes

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pp. 253-263

Notes

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pp. 265-300

Bibliography

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pp. 301-325

Index

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pp. 327-334