Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. v

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

I began to work on the Military Orders nearly half a century ago, when my research supervisor at Cambridge, R. C. Smail, provided me with a wonderful topic. Beginners need projects that everyone agrees ought to be undertaken and for which the materials are...

Abbreviations

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p. ix

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Prologue

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pp. 1-7

Military Orders are orders of the Roman Catholic Church, the brothers (and occasionally sisters) of which are professed religious, subject to the usual obligations of, and constraints in, canon law, except that some of them had the right and duty to bear arms. Priests...

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1: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF TRADITIONS

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pp. 9-24

In March 1198 there was a gathering in Acre of almost everyone of importance in the city. The patriarch of Jerusalem; the archbishops of Nazareth, Tyre and Caesarea; the bishops of Bethlehem and Acre; the masters of the Temple and the Hospital; Henry of Champagne, the...

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2: COMMUNITIES

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pp. 25-42

When he was minister of the Franciscan province in the Holy Land Fidenzio of Padua was asked by the grand master of the Temple to provide two friars to assist as chaplains at the castle of Saphet. He recalled later that when Saphet fell to the Egyptians in 1266, after...

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3: GOVERNANCE

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pp. 43-59

In a letter written in 1260 Grand Master Thomas Berard of the Temple exclaimed: “there is not a prince in this world who could conveniently hold seven castles at the same time . . . and add [to this] the costs involved in the defence of such a great city as Acre, a major part...

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4: TWO VERY DIFFERENT ORDERS

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pp. 61-65

In a memorandum written in 1305 James of Molay, the last grand master of the Temple, asserted that “the Hospitallers were founded to care for the sick, and beyond that they bear arms . . . whereas the Templars were founded specifically for military service.” 1 The Templars, in other words...

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Epilogue

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pp. 67-70

Between 1278 and 1283 the Hospitaller knight William of Santo Stefano was compiling a collection in translation of historical texts, with the help of the order’s treasurer, who lent him material from the archives. William was transferred from Palestine to Lombardy, where...

Notes

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pp. 71-104

Bibliography

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pp. 105-118

Index

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pp. 119-131