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Basque Nationalism and the Spanish State

Alternative Routes To Nationalist Mobilisation

André Lecours

Publication Year: 1997

Published by: University of Nevada Press


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p. vii

Figures and Tables

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p. ix

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pp. xi-xii

Nationalism is a tricky research subject, because it is difficult to write about it without being categorized as either a “sympathizer” or a “critic.” This tendency to place tags on writers is understandable, because much...

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p. xiii

Research for this book was conducted in the Basque Country as well as in the Basque Studies Library at the University of Nevada, Reno. I would like to thank No

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pp. 1-24

"Es la realidad del País.” This is a statement I heard more than once when conducting research on Basque nationalism in the Basque Country. It conveys a sense of resignation about the deep polarization of Basque politics and society that has accompanied the expression of Basque nationalism in the...

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Chapter One. The Early Spanish State

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pp. 25-39

Basque nationalism can be understood only in the context of a particular historical process: the construction, transformation, and evolution of the Spanish state and its relationship with Spanish nation-building. The erection...

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Chapter Two. The Centralizing State

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pp. 40-61

If the structures of the early Spanish state favored the construction of a Basque identity through foral autonomy, they were not immediately conducive to Basque nationalism for at least two reasons. First, the fueros maintained the individuality of the Basque provinces, which rendered problematic...

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Chapter Three. The Authoritarian State

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pp. 62-82

The emergence of Basque nationalism stems from the specific historical sequence of the Spanish state, more specifically its transition from confederal to centralizing and the agency this change triggered from Bizkaia’s conservative elites. Prior to the Second Republic and the Franco dictatorship,...

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Chapter Four. The Democratic State

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pp. 83-113

By the time Spain began its transition toward democracy, Basque nationalism was a potent political force. The sequential chain represented by the institutional mutations of the Spanish state had taken it from a marginal movement spearheaded by conservative politicians to a vigorous, popular, and...

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Chapter Five. Basque Paradiplomacy

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pp. 114-134

The last chapters showed how the historical trajectory of the Basque Country from the late nineteenth century onward involved the development of nationalism as an increasingly powerful political force. The previous chapter explained that the transition to democracy in Spain featured the creation of the....

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Chapter Six. The Management of Basque Nationalism in Spain

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pp. 135-156

The contemporary sociological reality of Spain is characterized by multinationalism, which means that a segment of the country’s population identifies, at least to a degree, with a different national community....

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Chapter Seven. Basque Nationalism in Comparative Perspective

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pp. 157-176

There are relatively few studies putting Basque nationalism in a comparative perspective with other nationalist movements in the West such the Quebecois, the Flemish, and the...

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pp. 177-180

The study of nationalism is permeated by a handful of research questions. At the top of the list is the issue of its modernity: to what extent can the roots of nationalism be located in ancient, or at least premodern,....


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pp. 181-212


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pp. 213-230


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pp. 231-238

E-ISBN-13: 9780874177312
Print-ISBN-13: 9780874177220

Page Count: 336
Illustrations: 4 maps
Publication Year: 1997

OCLC Number: 794927906
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Basque Nationalism and the Spanish State

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Subject Headings

  • Catalonia (Spain) -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements.
  • Basques -- Ethnic identity.
  • Nationalism -- Spain -- Catalonia.
  • Catalans -- Ethnic identity.
  • Nationalism -- Spain -- País Vasco.
  • País Vasco (Spain) -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements.
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