Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Abstract

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-xiv

List of Figures

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pp. xv-xvi

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xvii-xviii

We are grateful to the contributors for the thoughtfulness they put into their research and the ways in which their work challenged us to expand the exhibition in new directions.
We benefitted from the expertise and resources of our colleagues at the Canadian Museum of History. Dean Oliver, Director of Research, and Bianca Gendreau, Manager of...

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Préface

Chantal Machabée

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pp. xix-xx

Le 28 septembre 1972. Je suis en classe, à l’école primaire. Je sens une certaine fébrilité, mais je n’ai aucune idée de sa raison. L’enseignante allume le téléviseur et ne dit rien. Elle poursuit sa leçon, mais jette régulièrement un coup d’oeil à l’écran, qui diffuse un match de hockey. C’est le tout premier que je vois, car à la maison, personne ne s’intéresse au...

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Introduction: Challenging Hockey

Jenny Ellison and Jennifer Anderson

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pp. 1-16

For many Canadians, hockey is the game. Hockey animates conversations at work and school. Fine art, popular culture, and books explore hockey’s role in everyday life. Communities use hockey to teach children teamwork and to advance social causes. The year 2017 marked several important anniversaries for Canada and hockey: the 150th anniversary of...

Hockey: More Than Just a Game Images from the Canadian Museum of History Exhibition, March-October 2017

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pp. 17-22

Part I: Debating Hockey’s Origins

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1. A Flag of Tendons: Hockey and Canadian History

Andrew C. Holman

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pp. 25-44

“Sport is a form of culture recognized by all Canadians,” Don Morrow and Kevin Wamsley begin their book, Sport in Canada, even among “those who dislike participating in or watching sport” (2009, 1). Sport is a part of daily, weekly, and seasonal routines for many Canadians—the sort of lived experience that the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey...

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2. Re-Imagining the Creation: Popular Mythology, the Mi’kmaq, and the Origins of Canadian Hockey

Paul W. Bennett

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pp. 45-60

Few subjects in Canadian sport arouse as much passion as debating the origins of ice hockey, Canada’s mythical national pastime. Hockey fans, hobbyists, and even a few sports scholars have been known to “mix it up” off the ice when the discussion inevitably returns to the hotly contested matter of creationism versus evolution. Seventeen years ago...

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3. Imagining a Canadian Identity through Sport: An Historical Interpretation of Lacrosse and Hockey

Michael A. Robidoux

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pp. 61-76

In Imagined Communities, Benedict Anderson convincingly reduces the concept of nationalism to an imagining; imagined “because members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” ([1983] 1991, 6). It is this notion of...

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Document 1. Excerpts from The Survivors Speak: A Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015)

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pp. 77-82

The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada was released in 2015, after seven years of consultations. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) heard from six thousand witnesses, most of them Indigenous former students of the system of forced-assimilation in Canada. Public awareness of the system of forced assimilation has...

Part II: Childhoods

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Document 2. In the Beginning Was the Sweater: L’abominable feuille d’érable of Ste-Justine

John Willis

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pp. 85-96

Hockey is to Canadians what soccer has become for Europe, Latin America, and the rest of the world. It is the focus of intense loyalty, and sometimes bitter partisanship. We dream of the game and live through its ups and downs from one day to the next by following some combination of talented or favorite players, or, more commonly, by selecting a team...

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4. Decolonizing the Hockey Novel: Ambivalence and Apotheosis in Richard Wagamese’s Indian Horse

Sam McKegney and Trevor J. Phillips

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pp. 97-110

Through the story of Saul Indian Horse, an Ojibway hockey prodigy who learns the game in residential school and whose potential rise to hockey stardom is hindered by traumatic legacies of personal abuse and the entrenched racism of Canadian hockey culture, Ojibway novelist Richard Wagamese lays bare, in his 2012 novel Indian Horse, heinous...

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5. “Here they come! Look them over!”: Youth, Citizenship, and the Emergence of Minor Hockey in Canada

Carly Adams and Jason Laurendeau

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pp. 111-124

In Canada, children and youth play hockey in extraordinary numbers. Currently, more than 600,000 Canadian kids under the age of eighteen are registered for minor hockey.1 This is a striking number considering that there are approximately six million Canadians between five and nineteen years of age.2 What is more, hockey is part of the fabric of the nation and...

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6. A Myth within a Myth: “Outdoor Shinny” as the Nursery for Canada’s National Game

Robert Rutherdale

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pp. 125-138

This chapter offers a reflection on the meaning and power of outdoor ice as a national symbol of the roots of hockey. As a northern country, Canada’s climate and abundant water in most regions creates conditions, historically and culturally, for ice hockey to emerge as the dominant sport played by children, youth, and many young adults. Alongside such...

Part III: Whose Game?

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Document 3: Skating in the Drainage Ditches

Hayley Wickenheiser

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pp. 141-142

I have had many defining moments in my career; certainly, history would point to glory at the Olympics or some other shining moment. But I have also had equally defining experiences that are unlikely to be recorded in reviews of my career. In fact, some of them continue to be driving factors in my daily life, on and off the ice. They continue to push...

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Document 4: Tyrone’s Story

Emily Sadler

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pp. 143-146

Team Canada sledge hockey players Tyrone Henry and Todd Nicholson never suited up together on the same team, but their respective careers in the sport have overlapped in ways they would have both found hard to believe less than a decade ago.
In March 2010, the two were in completely different places in life...

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7. Thirty Years of “Going Global”: Women’s International Hockey, Cultural Diplomacy, and the Pursuit of Excellence

Julie Stevens

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pp. 147-164

After twenty years of international expansion, women’s hockey hit a bump in the road at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games, in Vancouver, British Columbia. For Canada, success was sweet as the women claimed their third consecutive Olympic gold. However, Canada’s golden result was met with staunch criticism about the lack of parity in international...

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8. Women’s Recreational Hockey: A New Player Profile

Denyse Lafrance Horning

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pp. 165-178

Hockey is Canada. Canada is hockey. Regardless of the ordering of the words, this sentiment is proudly expressed by many Canadians when referring to the game of hockey. What differs among individuals, however, is their consideration of and engagement with the sport. Clearly, not all Canadians are actively involved in hockey or even fans of the game. Yet for individuals...

Part IV: Reporting Hockey

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Document 5: Hockey in New Media

Joe Pelletier

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pp. 181-182

My journey to becoming a hockey researcher and new-media journalist began at the local landfill in 1979.
When I was five years old, my father took me to the dump to drop off some tree branches and grass clippings. While he unloaded the debris, I was awestruck with a small piece of cardboard I found in the dirt...

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9. O Canada, We Stand On Guard For Thee: Representations of Canadian Hockey Players in the Swedish Press, 1920–2016

Tobias Stark

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pp. 183-198

In their 2005 survey of Canadian sport, researchers Don Morrow and Kevin Wamsley state that “hockey has invented Canadians as much as Canadians invented hockey” (2005, 203). Morrow and Wamsley build on numerous academic treatises published at the turn of the twenty-first century on hockey as a cultural practice in Canada. However, while there is a...

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10. The Hockey Night in Canada Punjabi Broadcast: A Case Study in Ethnic Sports Media

Courtney Szto and Richard Gruneau

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pp. 199-216

During the 2008 Stanley Cup Finals, between the Detroit Red Wings and the Pittsburgh Penguins, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) tried an experiment in multiculturalism with its flagship sports production, Hockey Night in Canada (HNIC). It offered commentary of the finals in Mandarin, Punjabi, Hindi, Italian, and Inuktitut (an Inuit...

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11. Taking Slap Shots at the House: When the Canadian Media Turn Curlers into Hockey Players

Kristi A. Allain

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pp. 217-230

In the spring of 2014, I tasked students in my course on men and masculinities with finding a social problem related to dominant and celebrated expressions of masculinity. In the resulting presentations, one of the students showed our class a video of a broadcast from the recently completed Sochi Winter Olympics. In the video, which aired on CBC TV...

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12. Tweeting Sexism and Homophobia: Gender and Sexuality in the Digital Lives of Male Major Midget AAA Hockey Players in Canada

Cheryl A. MacDonald

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pp. 231-242

Since approximately 2009, the landscape of the big four professional men’s sporting organizations in North America has begun to shift as concerns openly gay athletes. Three of the four leagues—the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB)—or affiliates now house or have housed an openly gay...

Part V: Rethinking the Pros

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Document 6. Maurice Richard: notre icône

Benoît Melançon

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pp. 245-248

Parmi les figures historiques du hockey, une place à part doit être réservée à Maurice Richard (1921-2000), le plus célèbre joueur de la plus célèbre équipe de hockey en Amérique du Nord, les Canadiens de Montréal. Le numéro 9 des Canadiens, celui que l’on surnomme « Le Rocket », a été recruté par son club en 1942. Cet ailier droit ne cessera

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Document 7. Joseph Cletus (Joe) Malone, 1890-1969

Marc Durand

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pp. 249-250

Surnommé « Gentleman Joe » pour son élégance et son esprit sportif, ou encore « le fantôme » en raison de sa façon d’apparaître au bon endroit, Joe Malone (figure D7.1) est d’abord l’icône du Quebec Hockey Club. C’est aussi un citoyen typique de la capitale : né d’une famille à revenus modestes, il a du sang irlandais et français. Sa mère, Marie-Louise...

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13. Trust and Antitrust: The Failure of the First National Hockey League Players’ Association, 1956–1958

J. Andrew Ross

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pp. 251-270

On October 9, 1956, the star players of the National Hockey League took to the ice at the Forum in Montreal to show off their skills at the tenth annual All-Star game. In the game format of the day, the reigning Stanley Cup champion Montreal Canadiens played a team of top players from the league’s other five clubs. The all-stars were led by “Terrible Ted...

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14. Eric Lindros et les Nordiques de Québec : deux solitudes ?

Laurent Turcot

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pp. 271-286

En cette fin de saison 1999-2000 de la LNH, les Flyers de Philadelphie arrivent premiers dans l’Association de l’Est, ce qui permet aux joueurs d’espérer enfin remporter la coupe Stanley. L’équipe est menée par son capitaine, Eric Lindros, qui a réalisé une saison de 27 buts et de 32 passes en 55 matchs, le grand attaquant ayant manqué plusieurs parties en raison...

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15. Whiteness and Hockey in Canada: Lessons from Semi-Structured Interviews with Retired Professional Players

Nathan Kalman-Lamb

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pp. 287-300

Recent literature about hockey has productively noted the association between whiteness, hockey, and Canadian national identity (e.g., Abdel-Shehid 2000; Robidoux 2002; Adams 2006; Allain 2008; Norman 2014). In this chapter, I will build on these discussions of hockey, whiteness, and Canadian identity in two ways. First, they will be framed in the context of...

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Contributors

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pp. 301-304

Carly Adams is a board of governors research chair (Tier II) and an associate professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education at the University of Lethbridge. Her research explores sport, recreation, and leisure experiences from the intersections of historical and sociological inquiry, with a focus on gender and community. Her work has appeared...

Index

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pp. 305-316