Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

This book could not have been written without the groundbreaking and tireless scholarship of Lilian Randall, who in 1965 discovered George Lucas’s handwritten diaries in two musty old shoeboxes. She spent years studying, interpreting, and publishing the diaries, virtually returning Lucas to life. Nor could this book have been written without ...

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Prologue

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pp. 1-21

On February 24, 1904, in his Parisian apartment overflowing with paintings, prints, and sculpture, George Aloysius Lucas looked into the eye of the camera and posed for his last portrait (fig. 1). Just shy of his eightieth birthday, Lucas recognized that it was a time for retrospection, a time for summing up. ...

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Chapter 1: The Cultivation of Lucas

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pp. 22-41

The portraits of Fielding Lucas Jr. (fig. 13) and his wife Eliza Carrell (fig. 14) displayed in the family’s Baltimore mansion served as elegant announcements of their wealth and culture. The paintings were completed in 1808 and 1810 by the famous portraitist Thomas Sully, whose subjects represented a who’s who of American ...

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Chapter 2: The Wandering Road to Paris

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pp. 42-51

Although a champion of the arts, Fielding Lucas had other ideas about a career for his son George. He wanted him to enroll as a cadet at the United States Military Academy at West Point. The attraction of West Point in the 1840s did not rest solely on the patriotic desire to serve the country in combat. ...

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Chapter 3: Lucas and Paris in a Time of Transition

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pp. 52-64

From the windows of his apartment at 13 rue de Ponthieu, overlooking the Rond-Point and the imperial gardens along the Champs-Élysées, George Lucas had a bird’s-eye view of the remarkable changes that had been occurring in Paris. When his lifelong friend Frank Frick visited him there on May 13, 1860, ...

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Chapter 4: Lucas and Whistler

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pp. 65-75

Among the artists whom Lucas befriended during his early years in Paris, his personal relationship with “Jimmy” (as Lucas called him) Whistler was the most unusual and often the most contentious. Lucas’s large and precious collection of 152 intaglio prints and lithographs by Whistler (six of which were signed by Whistler and ...

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Chapter 5: The Links to Lucas

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pp. 76-92

In 1857, the gently rising tide of interest in French art among wealthy American collectors turned into a wave. It was generated by the efforts of two charming and skillful European art dealers, Michael Knoedler and Ernest Gambart. Knoedler was a German-born but French-raised dealer who came to the United States in 1852 to manage the New ...

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Chapter 6: From Ecouen to Barbizon

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pp. 93-100

Prior to 1865, when Lucas left Paris in search of art, he ordinarily would travel by train approximately thirteen miles north to the town of Ecouen. With its colony of artists and the ready supply of “sympathetic” art that he and his clients adored, Ecouen had become his second home. In June 1865, however, Lucas began to venture south, ...

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Chapter 7: M, Eugène, and Maud

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pp. 101-109

It was not just the art that led Lucas to purchase a county home near Barbizon in the Fontainebleau countryside. Lucas had a more personal reason. It was a place where he could live privately and more comfortably with his mistress and her son ...

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Chapter 8: When Money Is No Object

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pp. 110-124

Beginning in the early 1870s, as America entered its Gilded Age and France a time of peace and prosperity known as the Belle Époque, the interest of American collectors in acquiring midcentury French academic, landscape, and genre paintings reached its peak. By the mid-1880s, French paintings began to outnumber ...

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Chapter 9: The Lucas Collection

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pp. 125-148

The robe and slippers worn by Lucas on February 24, 1904, when Dornac photographed him, supplied ample evidence of his condition. Suffering from rheumatism that affected his back, shoulders, and arms, Lucas rarely left his apartment. His worries were compounded by M’s failing health. She became seriously ill in November 1903 and was placed under a doctor’s care. ...

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Chapter 10: The Final Years

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pp. 149-159

The robe and slippers worn by Lucas on February 24, 1904, when Dornac photographed him, supplied ample evidence of his condition. Suffering from rheumatism that affected his back, shoulders, and arms, Lucas rarely left his apartment. His worries were compounded by M’s failing health. She became seriously ill in November 1903 and was placed under a doctor’s care. ...

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Chapter 11: The Terms of Lucas’s Will

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pp. 160-163

Lucas did not bequeath his art collection directly to the Maryland Institute. Instead, he left it to Henry Walters with the understanding that Walters would promptly give it to the Institute. As odd and awkward as this plan might seem, under the circumstances, it made perfect sense. Although Walters never saw Lucas’s ...

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Chapter 12: A Collection in Search of a Home

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pp. 164-177

It took two steamships to carry the Lucas collection from the port of Le Havre to the port of Baltimore. In July 1910, when the hundreds of crates containing the thousands of works of art were unpacked, John M. Carter, the president of the Maryland Institute, began searching in vain for a comprehensive catalogue that described what had bee ...

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Chapter 13: The Shot across the Bow

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pp. 178-184

In July 1974, the Maryland Institute selected William J. Finn to succeed Eugene (Bud) Leake as the school’s president. Trained as a sculptor and photographer, Finn had been the director of the Swain School of Design in New Bedford, Massachusetts, where he expanded the fine arts department and gained prominence by doubling the school’s enrollment. ...

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Chapter 14: The Glorification of Lucas

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pp. 185-203

On April 7, 1984, a long article entitled “Museum Has Art for Everyone” appeared in the Baltimore Sun. Using the BMA’s “Guide to the Galleries,” the article’s author provided readers with a virtual tour that began with paintings by Rembrandt, van Dyck, and other old masters. It moved to the magnificent Cone collection ...

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Chapter 15: In Judge Kaplan’s Court

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pp. 204-214

On January 30, 1995, the trustees of the Maryland Institute gathered to vote on whether to pursue a lawsuit against the BMA and the Walters Art Gallery that would resolve any question about its right to sell all or part of the Lucas collection and dedicate the proceeds to the Institute’s endowment. ...

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Chapter 16: Lucas Saved

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pp. 215-223

At the height of the battle over the Lucas collection, the city of Baltimore was struggling with important, much tougher issues. These included the adverse impact of a recession and declining economy, the loss of jobs, the departure of major businesses, the fall in family income, the chronic unsolved problem of de facto segregation in the city’s schools and neighborhoods, ...

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Postscript

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pp. 224-230

There is nothing as fickle as the taste for art. And no better illustration of this phenomenon than the Lucas collection. The cyclical rise and fall of the Lucas collection, the praise and criticism it has received, and its mercurial ups and downs in popularity are indelible parts of its history. In 1911, shortly after arriving in the United ...

Appendix

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pp. 231-238

Notes

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pp. 239-274

Bibliography

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pp. 275-284

Index

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pp. 285-293

Image Plates

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