Cover

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Title Page

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p. iii

Copyright

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p. iv

Contents

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pp. vii-xiii

List of illustrations

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p. xv

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Series editor’s preface

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pp. xvii-xviii

This new volume from Professors Yamuna Kachru and Cecil L. Nelson is an important and innovative addition to the Asian Englishes Today series. It is an important addition in the sense that it is the first volume in the AET series that is explicitly designed for use as a higher-level undergraduate or...

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Preface

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pp. xix-xx

This volume presents a comprehensive picture of the spread, functions and dynamic status of English in the changing Asian contexts. As discussed in the Introduction, World Englishes in Asian Contexts comprises in its four parts theoretical conceptualizations and methodological processes utilized in the...

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Acknowledgements

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p. xxi

The genesis, completion, and production of World Englishes in Asian Contexts owes gratitude to several individuals and institutions: To Kingsley Bolton, the initiator of the series, Asian Englishes Today, for his enthusiastic endorsement for the idea of this volume, and his continued invaluable advice and suggestions; to Clara Ho of Hong Kong University Press for her understanding...

List of symbols and abbreviations

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pp. xxii-xxiii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

The notion ‘world Englishes’ provides the major conceptual framework for a useful and reasoned understanding of the spread and functions of the English language in global contexts. This concept also forms the theoretical and methodological basis for the twenty-two chapters of this volume. Earlier...

Part I: Theory, Method and Contexts

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1 World Englishes today

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pp. 9-22

The latter half of the twentieth century saw an amazing phenomenon — the emergence and acceptance of a single language as an effective means of communication across the globe. English by now is the most widely taught, learnt and spoken language in the world. It is used by over 300 million people...

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2 Conceptual framework

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pp. 23-34

Concepts of varieties and variation must be examined from a number of points of view in order to give anything like a complete picture of contemporary world Englishes. Chapter 1 presented a brief overview of the development of varieties of English across the world diasporas, and Chapter 3 explicates the...

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3 Structural variation

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pp. 35-49

For the users of the English in the Outer and Expanding Circles, English is either a second language, or, if they are multilingual, it is one of the languages in their linguistic repertoire. As such, their English is in constant contact with the languages of the regions which they inhabit. Consequently, these varieties...

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4 Contexts and identities

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pp. 51-63

It is clear from the exchanges between Susan and Takeshi cited above that the negotiation of meaning between the two participants is not going well. Both, of course, are equally proficient in English; however, it is doubtful that they share the same competence in using their linguistic proficiency for communicating across cultures...

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5 Parameters of intelligibility

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pp. 65-75

A recurrent discussion in world Englishes contexts turns around the likelihood that present or future varieties of English may not be readily intelligible when used outside their home localities, nations, or regions. Much of ESL or EFL teaching is concerned with the development and practice of forms of English...

Part II: Acquisition, Creativity, Standards and Testing

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6 World Englishes and language acquisition

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pp. 79-92

Second Language Acquisition (SLA) emerged as a distinct field of research in the late 1950s to early 1960s (see, e.g., Mitchell and Myles, 1998; Ritchie and Bhatia, 1996) attempting to answer questions such as the following: Is it possible to acquire an additional language in the same sense as one acquires...

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7 Standards, codification and world Englishes

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pp. 93-107

The global spread of English and its unprecedented success as a language used in many domains by almost all sections of human societies have created both elation and consternation among language experts. There is a great deal of satisfaction that people of the world, at last, have a viable medium for...

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8 Creativity and innovations

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pp. 109-119

It is perhaps legitimate to wonder whether, in the intense and now immense discussions of ‘world Englishes’, there might not exist an underlying continuation of the alleged dichotomy between the ‘native and non-native’ speakers. That is, it might be easy to foster an implicit, however unintended, view that...

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9 Teaching and testing world Englishes

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pp. 121-135

The teaching of English in its world contexts has long since ceased to be the prerogative of a few scattered ‘expert, native speakers’. Indeed, that the situation was ever such in any widespread way is called into question by current reassessments. In any case, for the present day and for the future, the view...

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10 Teaching world English literatures

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pp. 137-149

In most contexts of language teaching, literature is kept strictly separated from the teaching operation. The rationale for such separation is that literary works contain idiosyncratic uses of language that do not lend themselves to grading of language material, which may be considered essential from the point of...

Part III: Profiles across Cultures

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11 South Asian English

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pp. 153-165

South Asia is a linguistic area with one of the longest histories of contact, influence, use, and teaching and learning of English-in-diaspora in the world. As B. Kachru (1986a: 36) clarifies, ‘[the] use of the term South Asian English is not to be understood as indicative of linguistic homogeneity in this variety...

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12 East Asian Englishes

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pp. 167-180

For a full picture of the global forms and functions of English, its presence in contexts in the Expanding Circle (see Chapter 2) must not be neglected. The Expanding Circle comprises countries where English is not an official language of government or a medium of education; it may, however, be required or...

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13 Southeast Asian Englishes

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pp. 181-195

English plays a major role in many spheres of life in Southeast Asia, including those that involve academic, diplomatic, and economic pursuits. However, the Southeast Asian region presents a more diverse picture as compared to South Asia in that some parts of it have institutionalized Englishes...

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14 African Englishes

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pp. 197-210

English in Africa, as in other Outer-Circle situations, is very much in the character of a naturalized citizen: it retains its heritage, and also takes on features of its newer social and functional contexts. The colonial powers left their marks on the African continent in linguistic ways, as in others. Along...

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15 African-American Vernacular English

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pp. 211-221

In a country with a wide diversity of social groups, it is a given that there will be various dialects or varieties of speech. Wolfram (1981: 50) lists eighteen major dialect areas in the US, for example, Northeastern New England, the Virginia Piedmont, and Western Carolina and Eastern Tennessee. In a nation...

Part IV: Applied Theory and World Englishes

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16 Researching grammar

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pp. 225-240

Grammarians and historical linguists have always been aware of the fact that language is ‘continuously dynamic’; grammatical rules of languages are not static. They are neither resistant to change nor without exceptions. Furthermore, it is not the case that speakers, however well educated, are always...

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17 Dictionaries of World Englishes

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pp. 241-253

The items in italics in the above constructed dialogue are difficult to understand for speakers of English not used to this variety. The word pick for the phrasal verb pick up, the idiomatic expression vicious cycle for vicious circle, and the response Thank you to Goodbye are all common in Kenyan English (Skandera, 1999), though they are not listed with these meanings in any...

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18 Code-mixing and code-switching

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pp. 255-265

A well-recognized phenomenon in the speech of bilingual or multilingual people (hereafter, the inclusive term ‘multilingual’ will be generally used) is the appearance of items, phrases and longer strings of speech in two or more languages or codes in the utterances of individual participants. South Asian...

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19 Culture and conventions of speaking

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pp. 267-282

English is used differently in interpersonal interaction throughout the three Circles. In multilinguals’ language use, there is much mixing and switching of different codes, as is illustrated by the excerpt above from a Malaysian conversation among two school teachers. There are a number of solidarity and...

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20 Culture and conventions of writing

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pp. 283-291

It was pointed out in Chapter 5 that writing conventions vary significantly across varieties of English. It is a myth that Inner-Circle Englishes follow the same conventions of writing for a particular genre (Baker and Eggington, 1999; see Chapter 16). It is even more of an imaginative feat to assert that registers...

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21 Genre analysis across cultures

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pp. 293-304

Indian English newspapers and magazines, including the ones published in the USA, as News India Times is, usually have classified advertisements for arranged marriages, a genre peculiar to South Asia, though a comparable genre, Personal advertisements, exists in the West, too. A cursory glance at...

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22 Power, ideology and attitudes

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pp. 305-317

As preceding discussions have shown (see Chapter 7), English as a language with trans-national presences in various configurations of institutionalization, ranges of functions, and depths of penetration in societies lends obvious advantages to its users. On the other hand, it is not surprising that such access...

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Conclusion: Current trends and future directions

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pp. 319-325

While no book of this nature can claim to be comprehensive and exhaustive, even within a relatively limited context, the previous twenty-two chapters provide an overview of the approaches, the issues, the debates, the research findings and the cross-currents of opinions, realities and contexts of world...

Notes

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pp. 327-330

Glossary

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pp. 331-345

Annotated bibliography

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pp. 347-356

Additional resources

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pp. 357-359

References

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pp. 361-395

Index

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pp. 397-412