Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

In addition to the staff of the University of Arizona Special Collections Department and the Library of Congress, who pulled a massive number of boxes and books for me and were always helpful, I am highly grateful to a select set of individuals. First, the staff and contractors of the University of Nevada Press were a delight to work with every step of the way. Specifically, I am grateful for the guidance, editing, and support of Justin Race, Annette Wenda, Virginia...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xi-2

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Introduction

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pp. 3-10

The 1960s was a decade of civil rights debates and ultimate progress that included the rise and consequential racial assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and many other African Americans. It was a decade of the Beatles and of counterculture, of peace, love, and happiness in the form of sex, drugs, and rock and roll. It was a decade of Vietnam, Cold War, JFK, LBJ, and RFK. In addition to these important events and key figures, the 1960s ushered...

Part One — Udall’s Formative Years, 1920–1960

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pp. 11-12

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1. Early Years

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pp. 13-23

“The Great Depression didn’t affect us in St. Johns because we were already depressed.”1 This is one of the jokes Stewart and his younger brother Morris, himself an environmentalist and US representative from Arizona from 1961 to 1991, quipped when discussing their hometown. In the 1920s and 1930s, St. Johns, Arizona, was a small, remote community of fewer than two thousand inhabitants. Situated on the Colorado Plateau between Petrified Forest National...

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2. Congressman

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pp. 24-40

In the 1950s, Arizona had more national park units, more acres of American Indian reservations, and a larger percentage of the state as public lands (federally managed lands) than any other state, and practically all of these public lands were included in the congressional district that Udall represented. In fact, with the exception of Phoenix and Maricopa County, Arizona’s Second Congressional District included the entire state.1 This meant that Udall represented...

Part Two — Udall as US Secretary of the Interior, 1961–1969

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pp. 41-42

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3. First Days at the Interior Department

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pp. 43-67

As a congressman, Stewart and his wife, Lee, had fallen in love with the national capital practically right after arriving there. Enjoying its cultural offerings, arts, monuments, and scenery, they bought a house in McLean, Virginia, in the mid-1950s and transferred the family from Arizona. The Udall family home was located in a secluded, heavily forested backstreet near the Potomac River. Inside, they decorated the house lavishly in American Indian art,...

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4. Expanding the National Park System in the US West

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pp. 68-89

Of all the duties that Stewart Udall had as interior secretary, perhaps his favorite was serving as the “steward-in-chief ” of the National Park System. Having a passion for the great outdoors, Udall saw the need to preserve superlative examples of America’s landscapes, flora, fauna, and history before they were consumed by post–World War II industrial, commercial, and residential development. He also wanted to secure “backyard” outdoor recreation...

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5. Expanding the National Park System in the US East

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pp. 90-113

This chapter’s opening quote from Udall, spoken during the congressional debates over whether to establish Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, represents the interior secretary’s belief in the “necessity of now.” To the St. Johns native, America’s booming economy during the post–World War II era did some great things for the country, but this increasing industrial, commercial, and residential development also caused massive amounts of previously...

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6. Protecting Wildlife and Expanding the National Wildlife Refuge System

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pp. 114-125

A progressive liberal and supporter of the growing field of ecology, the well-read Udall, as a relatively young interior secretary, was one of Rachel Carson’s biggest supporters. It might have helped that the female science writer had formerly been a Department of the Interior employee for a number of years. In any case, Udall invited the famous science writer to dinner at his suburban Virginia home, had her present on pesticides at a meeting with Robert F....

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7. Transitioning the Bureau of Land Management to Multiple Use

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pp. 126-139

In 1961 the Bureau of Land Management’s official emblem depicted a miner, rancher, logger, and surveyor, each individual complete with their gear and specialized tools. Behind these natural resource extractors and users, train tracks, covered wagons, and industrial development dominated the scene. By the middle of the decade, the BLM had a new logo that depicted a winding river, grassland, conifer, and mountain—“snowcapped as a result of mountain climber...

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8. Establishing Wild Rivers and Supporting Reclamation

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pp. 140-163

Udall’s accomplishments and policies as interior secretary in terms of national parks, wildlife, and changes to Bureau of Land Management policy have been analyzed in the last four chapters. Another major responsibility of the Arizona native was “all things water.” Indeed, when it comes to water, in the 1960s the Department of the Interior held under its umbrella the Bureau of Reclamation, Office of Water Desalinization, and, beginning in the middle...

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9. Exercising Caution with Oil, Coal, and Mineral Development

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pp. 164-177

In the 1960s, many Department of the Interior agencies worked closely together and were charged with overseeing energy development and mineral extraction within the United States and its coastal waters. These bureaus and divisions included the Bureau of Land Management; the offices of Oil and Gas, Coal Research, and Minerals and Solid Fuels; the Oil Import Administration; the Bureau of Mines; and the US Geological Survey. Specifically, the...

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10. Advocating for the Wilderness Act

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pp. 178-183

In the springtime of 1962, three prominent conservationists and a famous poet met for an informal gathering and ceremony in the secluded woods of Washington, DC’s Dumbarton Oaks Park. Among the blooming daffodils and bluebells in one of the park’s miniature meadows sat Howard Zahniser, executive director of the Wilderness Society; William O. Douglas, the longest-serving Supreme Court justice in US history; poet Robert Frost, who had written about the...

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11. Revitalizing the Urban Environment and Stabilizing Human Population

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pp. 184-207

In order by topic, the past several chapters have discussed Udall’s environmental trials and tribulations as US secretary of the interior. One specific event, though, after Kennedy had been in office for just under three years, had a profound impact on Udall and the nation. A brief look at the event provides an intimate look into Udall’s thoughts and feelings. It also serves as a segue into the topic of urban environmentalism and Udall’s involvement in it....

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12. Controversies of the Interior Secretary

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pp. 208-224

In terms of conservation of natural resources and environmental protection, it can easily be argued that Stewart Udall was the most successful US secretary of the interior in history. He added more acres to the National Park System and National Wildlife Refuge System in the continental United States than any other interior secretary and pushed for the greening and cleaning of urban America by way of downtown revitalization efforts in the nation’s...

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13. Final Days in Office

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pp. 225-228

Even with all the last-minute drama between LBJ and the interior secretary, and even though Udall was surely disappointed in the president not establishing the series of new national monuments that he had so recommended, the final weeks of Udall’s tenure at the Department of the Interior had some nice moments and closures....

Part Three — Udall’s Life After Politics, 1970–2010

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pp. 229-230

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14. Lobbying for Energy Conservation

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pp. 231-244

After serving six years in the US House of Representatives and eight years as US secretary of the interior, Stewart Udall was still just forty-nine years old in 1969. He was not about to slow or quiet down on the national conservation and environmental front. From the moment he left the Department of the Interior and continuing to when he moved back out west with his wife around 1980, Udall lectured on numerous college campuses, discussing environmental...

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15. Defending Navajo Uranium Miners

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pp. 245-255

In 1976, being financially strapped and having exhausted his writings on the energy crisis and how to fix it, Udall joined the Washington, DC, law firm of Duncan, Weinberg, Miller & Pembroke. However, things apparently did not click for Udall at the firm. As a result, three years later, feeling like he had perhaps outlived his welcome in the national capital, wanting to find a cheaper location to move to, seeking to return to his native Southwest, and already...

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16. Climate Change Activist and Historian

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pp. 256-269

Udall had a broader focus in the 1960s than just national parks and more endeavors in the 1970s than just the energy crisis, and, similarly, he was involved in numerous adventures in addition to uranium lawsuits in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Graying hair and the addition of wrinkles did not necessarily slow Stewart Udall down....

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Conclusion

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pp. 270-274

The list of Stewart Udall’s lifetime achievements is vast. In eight years as US secretary of the interior, he helped establish four new national parks, six national monuments, nine national recreation areas, eight national seashores and lakeshores, and fiftyseven national wildlife refuges. He was a major contributor to the passing of the Wilderness Act, the Land and Water Conservation...

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 275-280

About the Author

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pp. 281-282

Index

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pp. 283-292