Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Figures and Tables

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book would not have been possible without the help of many people. We owe the deepest debt of gratitude to the Muslim women who participated in our survey and focus groups. Because we refer to them by pseudonyms in order to keep their identities confidential, we are unable to name...

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A Note on Author Contributions

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pp. xi-xiv

Bozena Welborne and Aubrey Westfall contributed to the majority of this book and in equal amounts, followed by Özge Çelik Russell and Sarah Tobin.

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Introduction

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pp. 1-17

On a cool December evening in 2015, thenpresidential candidate Donald Trump stepped on to a stage in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, and positioned himself in front of a large banner bearing his campaign slogan “Make America Great Again.” Above the cheers from the crowd, he read a...

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1. The Islamic Head Covering

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pp. 18-50

This chapter explores the practice of head covering in the United States by unpacking generational and fashion trends and the demographics of those who cover and through investigating the reasons for adopting the practice as explained by our survey participants. We situate this analysis within a...

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2. Unity amid Diversity?

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pp. 51-75

In this chapter, we explore the diversity of the Muslim-American population and the community’s historical development as a minority group in the United States. Muslims are one of the most ethnically, racially, and denominationally diverse religious publics in America. Adopting the head covering as an...

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3. Visibly Different

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pp. 76-108

In the statement above, one of our Arab- American survey respondents from Ohio describes her experience with being treated as the “other.” She believes that most Americans automatically assume she is different and that her difference overpowers her individuality. Such experiences are common among...

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4. Islamic Ethics and Practices of Head Covering in American Political Life

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pp. 109-129

Covered Muslim women in the United States must make sense of the relationship between their religious and political lives within a secular and democratic political system and do so in light of their head-covering practices. In order to understand the complexities of engaging questions of politics by covered...

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5. Head Covering and Political Participation

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pp. 130-155

Despite the growing size and importance of the Muslim population in America, the factors that motivate Muslims’ formal political participation are still relatively unexplored.1 We expect more attention to shift toward Muslim Americans in future years, as some activists considered them to have been the...

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6. Citizenship without Representation

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pp. 156-184

Muslim-American women act as full-fledged citizens of the United States despite facing widespread social discrimination. The discrimination is not without its consequences: it influences the way they see themselves in society, and it sets boundaries around their inclusion as equal citizens into American society...

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Conclusions and Implications

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pp. 185-196

In June 2013 we conducted a focus group interview in New York City. It was a beautiful Saturday morning. The weather was sunny and warm but not uncomfortable. The focus group was composed of five young women, all in their mid- to late twenties. They were wearing bright colors, the latest fashions...

Appendixes

A. Survey and Variable Descriptions

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pp. 197-201

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B. Comparison of Survey Respondent Characteristics with Those from Pew Surveys

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pp. 202-205

Though neither representative of the Muslim population generally nor conducted with a probability sample, our survey demographics compare favorably with the large-scale Pew surveys of Muslim Americans conducted in 2007 and 2011, which provide a validity check for our survey sample, collected...

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C. Primary Open-Ended Interview Questions for Focus Groups

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p. 206

We asked the following questions of our participants in each focus group. The order of the questions was not predetermined, and we let the participants determine the amount of time dedicated to each question.
• What are the top five considerations that come into play when you consider...

D. Focus Group Demographics

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pp. 207-208

E. Logistic Regression Predicting the Probability of Experiences with Othering among Covered Respondents

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p. 209

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F. Description of Simultaneous Equation Model and Variables

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pp. 210-212

In order to model the predicted relationships illustrated in figure 5.1, we use a simultaneous equation model. This model is less likely to result in the imposition of our biases on the data because the models allow the data to reveal whether two dependent variables might simultaneously determine...

G. Structural Parameter Estimates of Simultaneous Equation Models (SIMs)

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pp. 213-214

Glossary of Foreign Words

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pp. 215-216

References

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pp. 217-240

Index

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pp. 241-249