Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy (Lumbee)

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pp. ix-xiv

In 1969, Lakota scholar Vine Deloria,Jr., writing about research in tribal communities, noted, “Academia, and its by-products, continues to become more irrelevant to the needs of people.”1 Deloria’s frustration is one that has been shared by others, and continues to be relevant almost 50 years after being raised. This volume is a response to these frustrations. But, it is more than that. I would argue that the chapters in this volume point to what I call the four P’s of Indigenous methodologies. Indigenous methodologies are: Personal; point to the concept...

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Introduction: The Roots of Reclamation

Robin Starr Zape-tah-hol-ah Minthorn (Kiowa/Apache/Umatilla/Nez Perce/Assiniboine)
Heather J. Shotton (Wichita/Kiowa/Cheyenne)

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pp. 1-6

The first thoughts of this book began to stir several years ago among a group of our fellow Indigenous scholars as part of our growing frustration with the continued gap in literature on Indigenous research in higher education. What was even more concerning was the fact that we knew that research was being conducted by Indigenous scholars in higher education; we knew because we were conducting such research, as were our colleagues and students. Yet, there remained a void in the scholarship. We all recognized and had been answering the calls sent out by previous scholars (Brayboy, 2005; Deloria, 2004; Mihesuah,...

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Chapter 1: The Need for Indigenizing Research in Higher Education Scholarship

Charlotte Davidson (Diné/Three Affiliated Tribes: Mandan/Hidatsa/Arikara)
Heather J. Shotton (Wichita/Kiowa/Cheyenne)
Robin Starr Zape-tah-hol-ah Minthorn (Kiowa/Apache/Umatilla/Nez Perce/Assiniboine)
Stephanie Waterman (Onondaga, Turtle Clan)

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pp. 7-17

Well chronicled is the view of higher education, as a traditional structure of colonization, and its failure to maintain a cultural memory Indigenous to the earthen back upon which its buildings have been erected. Thus, the particular and contemporary impact this lack of remembrance has pedagogically prompted is the exclusion of Indigenized forms of research and its potential role to weave a new—and at the same time, layered—narrative into the academy. Writing on the dialectic of Indigenous and non-Indigenous knowing, Williams and Tanaka (2007) ardently point to how space-making, in the material and pedagogical...

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Chapter 2: “It Was a Process of Decolonization and That’s about as Clear as I Can Put It”: Kuleana-Centered Higher Education and the Meanings of Hawaiianness

Erin Kahunawaikaʻala Wright (Native Hawaiian)

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pp. 18-35

Author, poet, and Hawaiian nationalist Haunani-Kay Trask teaches us that colonialism diminishes Native2 identity into “dispossessions of empire” like Native lands and resources (Trask, 2002, p. 35). Trask (1999) writes,

Because of colonization, the question of who defines what is Native, and even who is defined as Native has been taken away from Native peoples by Westerntrained scholars, government officials, and other technicians. The theft itself testifies to the pervasive power of colonialism and explains why self-identity by Natives of who and what they are elicits such strenuous and sometimes vicious...

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Chapter 3: A Methodology of Beauty

Charlotte Davidson (Diné/Three Affiliated Tribes: Mandan/Hidatsa/Arikara)

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pp. 36-46

This chapter attempts to contribute to the search for an Indigenous research methodology upon which to reclaim a beauty-centered politic of research inquiry, and by so doing, to reassert the political vision to “walk in beauty.” To a deeper extent, walk in beauty, known in Diné Bizaad (The People’s Language) as Hózhóogo Naasháa Doo, is a form of existence that compels Diné to be conscious of our historical and contemporary capacity as human beings to harm or heal, and to be mindful of the aftereffect that occurs by our pursuit of either possibility. Thus, what ensues is a careful discussion concerning an embodied...

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Chapter 4: Understanding Relationships in the College Process: Indigenous Methodologies, Reciprocity, and College Horizons Students

Adrienne Keene (Cherokee Nation)

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pp. 47-63

Fourteen years ago, I was a student in a pre-college access program called College Horizons (CH). I was a rising senior in college, ready to tackle the college application process, but unsure about where I would end up, or how my family would pay for it. At the program, a weeklong crash course in applying to college, I met a group of adults who would become my mentors, friends, and family throughout college, my life, and my career. It was at CH that I met the Native recruiter for Stanford, who read through the application materials I had worked so hard on throughout the week, offering kind feedback and strong encouragement. Once...

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Chapter 5: Story Rug: Weaving Stories into Research

Amanda R. Tachine (Navajo)

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pp. 64-75

During my dissertation journey, I began to see research as a weaving process. I am neither an expert nor an avid rug weaver; only at this point in time an interested, curious learner. Growing up on the Navajo reservation, much of my knowledge of rug weaving has been from formal schooling, observing Navajo weavers, listening to stories from family, and from embarking on my own novice attempts at weaving. In this chapter, I explain how the formation of what I term story rug evolved. I begin with sharing the powerful effect Indigenous methodology and stories had on me as a Navajo woman, which ultimately helped me to find...

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Chapter 6: Stealing Horses: Indigenous Student Metaphors for Success in Graduate Education

Sweeney Windchief (Assiniboine)

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pp. 76-87

What is your metaphor for education? This question is asked for the specific purpose of prompting what scholars have termed “self-authorship” (Magolda & King, 2008; Pizzolato, 2003; Torres & Hernandez, 2007), in this case specifically through the internal creation of metaphor, with the intent of considering cultural context in successfully navigating graduate education. If you are an Indigenous graduate student this question is for you! Self-authorship assists students in moving from feeling unsatisfied through the development of their own internal perspectives to feeling in control of their own educational...

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Chapter 7: Predictors for American Indian/Alaska Native Student Leadership

Theresa Jean Stewart (San Luis Rey Band of Mission Indians, Gabrieliño/Tongva)

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pp. 88-106

During the first year of my doctoral program, I faced the onslaught of core courses essential to partially satisfying my degree requirements. The goal of program requirements was to prepare students for the field of higher education—equipping us with foundational knowledge from the field, as well as research training. Like other Native graduate students, this year forced me to confront the dehumanizing nature of education and question my place in academia. I was fortunate, however, to be uniquely positioned at an institution that rested squarely within my ancestral homelands; an institution that was also my...

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Chapter 8: Tribal College Pathways

David Sanders (Oglala Sioux Tribe)
Matthew Van Alstine Makomenaw (Grand Traverse Bay Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians)

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pp. 107-123

“Why don’t our students survive when they come to your universities?” (Taylor, 1999, p. 4). This was the question asked about Tribal College and Universities (TCUs) transfer students by a TCU president. The question posed back in 1999 is still important today. Since their inception in 1968 TCUs have been effective in educating postsecondary American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) students. The question for TCUs and those concerned with TCU success is what happens to the students who choose to transfer and attend a four-year mainstream institution. AIAN students in 2009–10 represented 1.2% of degrees conferred for...

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Chapter 9: Moving beyond Financial Aid to Support Native College Students: An Examination of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

Natalie Rose Youngbull (Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma)

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pp. 124-145

The Gates Millennium Scholarship Program (GMSP) was founded in 1999 and promised to fund 20,000 high-achieving, community-oriented, and engaged scholars in 20 years. The Gates Millennium Scholarship is both merit-based and need-based; recipients demonstrated high academic merit and involvement throughout high school and proved substantial financial need. As highachieving and low-income students, recipients are able to attend their first choice institution with the scholarship funding. GMSP quickly became recognized as one of the most competitive and prestigious scholarships to receive, and those...

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Chapter 10: The Intersection of Paying for College and Tribal Sovereignty: Exploring Native College Student Experiences with Tribal Financial Aid

Christine A. Nelson (Laguna/Navajo)

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pp. 146-161

Amongst my Native American1 peers, I was classified as a high achieving student in school. I attended pre-college access programs, had supportive parents, and received fairly good grades. College was always the next step for me, but why at the age of 20 was I attending my third college? And why was my tribal scholarship, which was my largest financial aid award, being denied?

I can recall feeling overwhelmed with financial uncertainty. The individuals who worked their 9 to 5 jobs and came home to what appeared to be little worry became increasingly appealing and ideal for my future. I soon...

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Chapter 11: Toward Equity and Equality: Transforming Universities into Indigenous Places of Learning

Kaiwipunikauikawēkiu Lipe (Native Hawaiian)

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pp. 162-177

Aloha mai kāua e ka mea heluhelu!2 In 2015, the Association for the Study of Higher Education’s (ASHE) annual conference theme was “Inequality and Higher Education” with a subtheme of “Indigenous Peoples.” This pairing of themes stirred something inside of me that led to the presentation of the following chapter that focuses specifically on inequality and inequity in higher education in relation to Indigenous peoples.

Ancestral Connections to Land

I begin with the Hawaiian chant Welina Mānoa Ua Kama‘āina as presented above for two reasons. First, it is a chant, composed by Professors Keawe Lopes...

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Chapter 12: Indigeneity in the Methods: Indigenous Feminist Theory in Content Analysis

Stephanie Waterman (Onondaga, Turtle Clan)

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pp. 178-190

Kateri Tekakawitha, Mohawk, was canonized by the Vatican in 2012, based largely on the Jesuit written record of her conversion. Kateri’s (pronounced Gaw dah lee) interpretation of her conversion was not recorded. She, and her home Mohawk community near what is now Auriesville, New York, had suffered great loss due to removal(s), war, and smallpox. She herself was stricken with smallpox and had lost most of her family due to the disease. We can only imagine her emotional and physical suffering, and considering the devastation of disease and community and its impact on everyday life, it may be completely inconceivable to us in...

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Chapter 13: Iḷisaġvik College: Alaska’s Only Tribal College

Pearl Kiyawn Brower (Iñupiaq Eskimo/Chippewa/Armenian)

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pp. 191-205

Indigenous leadership is a concept that has been present within Indigenous communities since time immemorial. However, because Indigenous communities have been subjugated to colonial policy for hundreds of years, the concept of Indigenous leadership has not been celebrated as it once was. This chapter will provide insight and information from the perspective of Indigenous leadership in a higher education context from Alaska’s only Tribal College, Iḷisaġvik College, in reference to what Indigenous leadership is, how it is exhibited within higher education, and what we can do to support our next generation of Indigenous...

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Conclusion: Repositioning the Norms of the Academy: Research as Wisdom

Heather J. Shotton (Wichita/Kiowa/Cheyenne)
Robin Starr Zape-tah-hol-ah Minthorn (Kiowa/Apache/Umatilla/Nez Perce/Assiniboine)

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pp. 206-214

In June 2016, we came together with a group of authors from this book to begin the process of gathering our collective thoughts about what it means to reclaim Indigenous research in higher education. As we approached the conclusion of this journey, to reclaim our space in higher education research, we began in much the same way we did as we embarked on this journey, with good thoughts, intentions, and prayer. As we gathered with our fellow authors we stood together and acknowledged the work that had been done and those who had contributed to this collective effort. We stood together as extensions...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 215-222

Index

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pp. 223-230