Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Note on Terminology, Names, and English Translations of Spanish Documents

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pp. xi-xiv

Since this book is based on research of documents and sources in several languages, it has been necessary to adapt the Spanish and French spellings of names and locations to the most-common ones used in modern English. The Spanish documents and archival terms have been translated as follows...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

Since early spring 1781, a Spanish army had been laying siege to Pensacola in British West Florida. By May, after having repelled a fierce British counterattack against the Spanish advanced positions, General Bernardo de Gálvez confided to his good friend...

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1. Early Years

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pp. 9-20

Most people are born into a family. Bernardo de Gálvez was born into a clan. The origins of the Gálvez family in Macharaviaya, a small village near Malaga in southern Spain, can be traced to the sixteenth century...

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2. New Spain: Fighting the Apache

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pp. 21-61

In 1764, José de Gálvez, Bernardo’s uncle, was appointed visitor-general for New Spain. The institution of the general visit was not new.1 Juan de Solórzano, arguably the most important Spanish jurist of the seventeenth century, traced its origin back to Genesis 18...

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3. Learning to Be an Officer and Tasting Defeat

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pp. 62-78

The least-documented period of Bernardo de Gálvez’s life and career is the five years between his return to Europe from New Spain and his departure for Louisiana. Although in previous works on Gálvez this gap has been the grounds for dismissing...

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4. Arrival in Louisiana and Preparations for War

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pp. 79-136

On May 22, 1776, Bernardo de Gálvez was appointed colonel of the Louisiana Fixed Infantry Regiment, and several months later, on September 19, he was also designated acting governor of the province.1 Before departing from...

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5. Bernardo de Gálvez Takes the Initiative

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pp. 137-179

Despite an old Spanish foreign policy axiom that counseled “war with the whole world and peace with England,” in fact for most of the modern age—and especially after the arrival of the house of Bourbon on the throne of Spain...

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6. His Finest Hour: Pensacola, “I Alone”

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pp. 180-244

In Mobile, Bernardo de Gálvez left 800 men under the command of José de Ezpeleta, who had to manage the hostility of the local population. At the end of March, Ezpeleta forced the locals to take an oath of allegiance to Spain. Those of French origin, and therefore mostly...

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7. Objectives: Jamaica, Return to Europe, Cuba

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pp. 245-280

Bernardo de Gálvez had planned to return directly to Cuba from Pensacola, but the news of a revolt in Natchez forced him instead to return to Louisiana. The immediate cause of the revolt was an appeal made by General John Campbell in...

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8. Viceroy of New Spain

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pp. 281-339

Bernardo de Gálvez landed at Veracruz on May 25, 1785.1 Fifteen years earlier he had arrived in Mexico under very different circumstances. Now he came as the new viceroy, representative of His Catholic Majesty in New Spain, and his arrival...

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Afterword

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pp. 340-348

The oldest reference to Bernardo de Gálvez’s “black legend” is by Alexander von Humboldt. In his Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, first published in Paris in 1811, he says he heard during his travels in Mexico in 1803 that “Count Bernardo de Galvez [was] accused of having conceived the...

Appendix

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pp. 349-382

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 383-386

While it is customary to include in the acknowledgments a list of the people and institutions that have helped the author to research, write, and publish his book, I have to confess that my previous experience with this section is not a very good one. In the list of acknowledgments included in my first book, published in 2002, either by error or by...

Notes

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pp. 387-498

Bibliography

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pp. 499-584

Index

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pp. 585-602