Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figure and Tables

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pp. ix-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

LAVIS IV and this volume would not have been possible without the generous financial support of the National Science Foundation (award 1451103), the Southeastern Conference on Linguistics, the American Dialect Society, the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at NC State University, the Department of English at NC State, and the William C. Friday Endowment at NC State. ...

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Introduction

Jeffrey Reaser

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pp. 1-17

The fourth decennial meeting of Language Variety in the South (henceforth LAVIS IV) in Raleigh, North Carolina, in April 2015 built on and extended the rich academic foundation and tradition of the three preceding LAVIS meetings. By bringing together prominent linguists and language researchers, these meetings became the preeminent regional linguistics conference ...

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Chapter 1. LAVIS: Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

William A. Kretzschmar Jr.

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pp. 18-41

Anyone who works in an English department is likely to recognize the title of this chapter as the title of a fabulous Joyce Carol Oates short story. Connie, a pretty young girl of fifteen, flaunts her good looks to flirt with boys at a restaurant. One of the guys there, Arnold Friend, goes to her house in his funky gold car and tries to take her out. He is clearly a dangerous guy, ...

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Chapter 2. [ˈsʌδɚn], [ˈsʌδən], [ˈsʌδɹən], [ˈsʌδn̩], [sʌ̃ːn], etc.: What We/They Think/Thought It Is/Was/Will Be

Dennis R. Preston

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pp. 42-61

Here we go again talking about language and variety in the South. Although there are good reasons to talk about the speech of any region, they are amplified in the study of Southern U.S. English (SUSE). One major area of that amplification lies in the historical and current regard for the language of the region, the regard of both insiders and outsiders — the major “we” ...

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Chapter 3. Language and the Internet in the New South

Becky Childs, Joel Schneier

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pp. 62-77

This chapter considers the ways in which the Internet and computer-mediated communication (CMC) have helped bolster Southern English as a significant linguistic variety and, more important, the ways in which it has increased the profile of the Southern English linguistic community. The Internet and CMC represent a drastic shift in media technologies to highly interactive forms ...

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Chapter 4. Performing Southernness in Country Music

Catherine Evans Davies, Caroline Myrick

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pp. 78-96

This chapter addresses the theme of the New South by considering some of the key questions through the lens of country music. Who (or what) is southern? How is southernness indexed? Why would somebody who is not from the South want to perform southernness, and how can that be accomplished? This study tracks the performance of southernness through dialect from the origins of country music across five generations ...

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Chapter 5. Appalachia, Monophthongization, and Intonation: Rethinking Tradition

Paul E. Reed

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pp. 97-112

The Appalachian Regional Commission (www.arc.gov) recognizes Appalachia as the mountainous region that stretches from northern Georgia to Pennsylvania. For nearly 150 years metropolitan America has viewed Appalachia as a region of interest, yet this interest has suffered from misinformation and distorted portrayals. John C. Campbell (1921:xxi) states that “Appalachia is a land about which, ...

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Chapter 6. Language Variety in Louisiana: Research Trends and Implications

Michael D. Picone

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pp. 113-134

Having previously suffered from a level of neglect totally incommensurate with the richness and complexity of its succession of languagescapes, Louisiana has garnered ever-increasing attention as the object of linguistic investigation over the last few decades. This can be appropriately exemplified by comparing the progression of Language Variety in the South (LAVIS) gatherings over the decades. ...

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Chapter 7. Cajuns as Southe(r)ne(r)s? An Examination of Variable r-Lessness in Cajun English

Katie Carmichael

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pp. 135-152

Louisiana has always been something of an anomaly in the American South — geographically it is distinguished by the crisscrossing bayous of the Mississippi delta; culturally it features a number of traditions linked to its French heritage, such as Mardi Gras; and linguistically it stands out due to the varied mixture of influences from French, Spanish, and African sources, ...

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Chapter 8. The Continuing Symbolic Importance of French in Louisiana

Nathalie Dajko

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pp. 153-174

It is well known that Louisiana’s French varieties are seriously endangered. The ten years between the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Censuses alone saw a drop of 62,893 declared speakers — a decline of roughly 25 percent (U.S. Census Bureau 1990, U.S. Census Bureau 2000). In the city of New Orleans, the language is for all intents and purposes extinct: while the city does have a small percentage of native French-speaking residents, ...

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Chapter 9. Sounding Black: Labeling and Perceptions of African American Voices on Southern College Campuses

Tracey L. Weldon

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pp. 175-202

Social commentary on “sounding black” circulates widely within (and, to some extent, outside) the African American speech community. Studies such as Baugh (1996) and Purnell, Idsardi, and Baugh (1999) have shown that listeners are able to identify the racial and/or ethnic background of speakers, often with only minimal acoustic cues (see also Buck 1968; Abrams 1973; ...

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Chapter 10. Black Is, Black Isn’t: Perceptions of Language and Blackness

Sonja L. Lanehart, Ayesha M. Malik

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pp. 203-222

The human activity of language, the social construction of race, and the concept of identity are complicated. The ideologies surrounding language and race are even more complicated when they are examined along with identity. In this chapter, we parse each of these elements — language, race, and identity — among African American teenagers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, ...

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Chapter 11. (De)Segregation: The Impact of De Facto and De Jure Segregation on African American English in the New South

Mary Kohn

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pp. 223-240

Scholars have assumed that segregation plays some role in promoting the distinctiveness of African American English (AAE) in the context of other regional varieties. As noted by Yaeger-Dror and Thomas (2010:8), “The degree to which a given AAE [speaker] accommodates to the local PVE [Predominant Vernacular English] norms is theoretically also influenced by ...

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Chapter 12. Community Detection and the Reversal of the Southern Vowel Shift in Raleigh, North Carolina

Robin Dodsworth

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pp. 241-256

Sociolinguists have long used information about network position to account for linguistic variation within communities. For example, Labov (1972) concludes that among the Jets, a group of adolescent boys in Harlem, rate of copula absence is positively correlated with centrality in the group network. Similarly, Milroy (1980) finds that integration in local networks ...

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Chapter 13. Where Are You From? Immigrant Stories of Accent, Belonging, and Other Experiences in the South

Agnes Bolonyai

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pp. 257-273

Recent years have seen a significant interest in mobility, migration, transnationalism, and the repercussions these sociocultural processes have for people, places, and practices under contemporary conditions of globalization. A wide and diverse range of scholars have argued that globalization, characterized by the circulation of people and practices, information and ideologies, ...

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Chapter 14. What a Swarm of Variables Tells Us about the Formation of Mexican American English

Erik R. Thomas

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pp. 274-288

Language contact has been a fertile topic for linguistic studies since the nineteenth century. Much of the discussion, of course, centers on such topics as bilingualism, how relative power of the languages affects the outcome, and whether features in particular languages originated internally or through contact with other languages. Today, however, it is possible to observe language contact situations as they develop. ...

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Chapter 15. Spanish in North Carolina: English-Origin Loanwords in a Newly Forming Hispanic Community

Jim Michnowicz, Alex Hyler, James Shepherd, Sonya Trawick

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pp. 289-305

Lexical borrowing is a common result of language contact (Winford 2003). In the case of Spanish in the United States, numerous studies have established the widespread use of English-origin loanwords, popularly referred to as anglicismos or “Spanglish” words (Lipski 2008).1 Most studies, however, have focused on determining the status of loanwords as either borrowings ...

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Chapter 16. On the Status of Miami as a Southern City: Defining Language and Region through Demography and Social History

Phillip M. Carter, Andrew Lynch

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pp. 306-320

In terms of sociolinguistic perception, no region of English-speaking North America is more salient than the U.S. South. Studies of perceptual dialectology (Preston 1989; Niedzielski and Preston 2003) have repeatedly shown that (a) U.S. listeners are good at identifying southern speech when they hear it, (b) participants taking part in map tasks are most likely to identify ...

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Chapter 17. Sociolinguistic Outreach for the New South: Looking Back to Move Ahead

Kirk Hazen

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pp. 321-343

One of the most infamous events of the civil rights movement happened in Montgomery, Alabama, on December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks refused to obey a bus driver’s order to change seats. But few people know that her actions and the subsequent reaction were more thought out than spontaneous. Prior to Parks’s celebrated deed, she completed a Race Relations course ...

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Chapter 18. We Must Go Home Again: Interdisciplinary Models of Progressive Partnerships to Promote Linguistic Justice in the New South

Anne H. Charity Hudley, Christine Mallinson

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pp. 344-357

Through the concerted efforts of linguists, allied scholars, and practitioners, the U.S. South has been the locus of important research that aims to understand the role of language in social inequalities. Some of the most chronic social issues that have long contributed to inequalities in the United States and in the South of the past are still critically relevant in the New South, ...

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Chapter 19. Negotiating Language Presentation: Linguists, Communities, and Producers

Walt Wolfram, Danica Cullinan, Neal Hutcheson

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pp. 358-373

Predictions of language death among the world’s languages are ominous; by the end of the twenty-first century, up to 90 percent of the world’s languages will become extinct (Krauss 1992). Given this grave forecast, language endangerment has become a critical concern in contemporary linguistics. Linguistic documentation of moribund languages has become a priority in the field, ...

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Chapter 20. The Role of the University in Negotiating Language Revitalization

Hartwell S. Francis

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pp. 374-388

Recently, the Western Carolina University Cherokee Language Program has had the pleasure to work with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) community to document language revitalization efforts in the community. From our position in the University of North Carolina system, we were able to work with the Language and Life Project at NC State University ...

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Chapter 21. Language Revitalization and Sociolinguistics: A Commentary on First Language: The Race to Save Cherokee

Christian Koops

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pp. 389-396

I would like to use this commentary on Neal Hutcheson and Danica Cullinan’s 2014 documentary First Language: The Race to Save Cherokee as an opportunity to speak about language revitalization to an audience of sociolinguists. The documentary raises a number of questions about language variation and change — sometimes directly, sometimes indirectly ...

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Chapter 22. Variationist Research in the South: Current Perspectives and Future Directions

Eric Wilbanks

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pp. 397-416

Like the changing nature of the South itself, the methodologies, questions, and communities central to linguistic variationist work in the South are rapidly evolving. As new groups and communities gain prominence in the region, researchers are quick to document the sociolinguistic effect such shifts have on both well-established and new communities. ...

Index

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pp. 417-430