Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-xiv

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xv-xvi

Production of a statewide faunal treatise requires the assistance of numerous individuals, during all stages of its preparation. Many friends and colleagues have provided support to the completion of this project in a number of ways. Herein we acknowledge this assistance and apologize to those we have forgotten. Any errors are strictly the responsibility of the authors. ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-34

Florida’s freshwater environments are host to an interesting fish fauna including both native freshwater and marine species, as well as a large number of nonindigenous taxa. Within these groups exists a great diversity of shape, size, color, and species. From the western edge of the Florida panhandle to the tip of Key West, a distance of almost 900 miles, a great shift in habitats occurs. ...

Family and Species Accounts

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 34-35

read more

Family Petromyzontidae (Lampreys)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 35-38

Lampreys are eel-like fishes that lack jaws and paired fins. The adult has a skeleton of cartilage, 7 pairs of porelike gill openings, 1 median nostril, and an oral disc with rasping teeth. Lampreys excavate pits to be used as spawning sites in the substrate by removing stones with their suction-disc mouths and by fanning out fine particles with vibrations of the body. ...

read more

Family Dasyatidae (Whiptail Stingrays)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 39-40

Whiptail stingrays are rhomboid shaped, flattened, disc-like fishes with a long tail equipped with 1 or more venomous spines (one Old World species, the Porcupine Ray, Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch and Schneider 1801), has none). When not swimming, these fishes lie flat on the bottom or buried in the substrate. The eyes are on top of the head, and the mouth is located underneath. ...

read more

Family Acipenseridae (Sturgeons)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 41-44

Sturgeons are large ancient fishes with a row of large bony plates (scutes) along the back and 2 rows of scutes on the side of the body, a skeleton of cartilage except for ossified bones in the skull, a heterocercal caudal fin, and a spiral valve in the intestine. Sturgeons are adapted for life on the bottoms of rivers and the sea, with flattened bodies and a subterminal mouth. ...

read more

Family Lepisosteidae (Gars)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 45-51

Gars are a distinctive and ancient group of fishes restricted to North America, Central America, and Cuba. They have a long cylindrical body encased in non-overlapping rows of hard diamond-shaped ganoid scales, long jaws with sharp conical teeth, and dorsal and anal fins placed far back on the body. They have a lunglike gas bladder that is used to assist ...

read more

Family Amiidae (Bowfins)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 52-53

Fossils of the family Amiidae are known from North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa (Grande and Bemis 1999). The only surviving species, the Bowfin, Amia calva Linnaeus 1766, is native to eastern North America and retains primitive features of the family, including a large gular plate on the throat, an abbreviated (rounded externally) ...

read more

Family Notopteridae (Featherfin Knifefishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 54-56

Members of the family Notopteridae are commonly referred to as featherfins because of their very small dorsal fin which resembles a feather, typically with only 6–10 rays. Some species are called knifefishes, in reference to their elongate and compressed bodies which taper sharply posteriorly and the presence of sharp scutes along the belly anteriorly. ...

read more

Family Elopidae (Tenpounders)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 57-58

Tenpounders are elongate silvery fishes with small silvery scales covering the body, which is rectangular to oval in cross section. They have large mouths and gill openings. Large pseudobranchiae are present on the underside of the gill cover and a median gular plate is found on the underside of the head between the lower jaws. The dorsal fin origin is at midbody, ...

read more

Family Megalopidae (Tarpons)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 59-60

Tarpons are large to giant, moderately compressed, semi-elongate, predatory fishes, with large mouths and eyes. The body is covered in large silvery scales. An axillary process is present at the pectoral and pelvic fin bases. There are no spines. Small pseudobranchiae are present on the underside of the gill cover and a median gular plate is found on the underside of the head between the lower jaws. ...

read more

Family Anguillidae (Freshwater Eels)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 61-62

Freshwater eels are snakelike, lack pelvic fins, and have scales so small that they appear to be absent. Eighteen species are known worldwide and found on every continent except Antarctica. One species is found in Florida. Adults of the American Eel, Anguilla rostrata, and closely related European Eel, A . anguilla (Linnaeus 1758), migrate to the Sargasso Sea ...

read more

Family Ophichthidae (Snake Eels)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 63-64

Snake eels are elongate, slender, snakelike fishes with multiple overlapping branchiostegal rays, which create a basketlike branchial chamber. They have no scales and the tongue is affixed to the floor of the mouth. They exhibit a great deal of variation in their fins. Pelvic fins are absent, but dorsal, anal, pectoral, and caudal fins may be present or absent. ...

read more

Family Engraulidae (Anchovies)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 65-66

Anchovies are pale-colored to translucent, often with a silvery stripe on the side, numerous small melanophores on the fins and body, and a slightly protruding to bulbous snout. All species possess an adipose eyelid. They have a large underslung jaw composed of many specialized, paper-thin bones. When present, jaw teeth are typically small to minute. ...

read more

Family Clupeidae (Herrings)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 67-79

Most herrings, including sardines, menhadens, and other economically important fishes, are marine, but a few species live only in fresh water, and some marine species frequently enter fresh water. Clupeids have a strongly compressed body, a conspicuous adipose eyelid, a keel (sawtooth edge) on the belly, and an axillary process above the pelvic fin base. ...

read more

Family Cyprinidae (Carps and Minnows)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 80-127

Cyprinidae is the largest family of fishes, with about 3,000 species worldwide. It is present on all continents except South America, Australia, and Antarctica. Minnows are almost always the most diverse and abundant fishes in the streams and lakes of Florida. Twenty-five native and four introduced species are found in Florida. ...

read more

Family Catostomidae (Suckers)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 128-140

Suckers are characterized by having large thick lips and no teeth on the jaws but many comblike or molarlike teeth on the pharyngeal arches. They have 1 dorsal fin with 9 or more rays, and abdominal pelvic fins. The large lips are used in most species to “vacuum” invertebrates from the substrates of streams and lakes. Suckers are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, and 8 of the approximately 85 species of suckers live in Florida. ...

read more

Family Cobitidae (Spined Loaches)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 141-142

Cobitidae is a large family of fishes recognized by a moveable suborbital spine and elongated body. Spined loaches occupy a wide variety of habitats ranging from high-gradient mountain streams to lowland rivers, lakes, swamps, and flooded fields. Species of the family have reduced scales, small to reduced eyes, a subterminal mouth usually with 3–6 pairs of barbels, ...

read more

Family Callichthyidae (Callichthyid Armored Catfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 143-144

Armored catfishes of the family Callichthyidae are characterized by a relatively short stout body with 2 rows of narrow, vertically oriented bony plates. The snout is rounded and the mouth is subterminal. They have 2 pairs of maxillary barbels and 0–2 pairs of mental barbels. The dorsal and adipose fins are equipped with a single thick spine. ...

read more

Family Loricariidae (Suckermouth Armored Catfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 145-148

Suckermouth armored catfishes have bony plates covering the arched body, a flattened underside, and a large subterminal mouth with 1 pair of barbels and large papillose lips. The suctorial mouth and rasping teeth are used to feed on algae and other organisms attached to stones and woody debris on the bottoms of streams and lakes. ...

read more

Family Clariidae (Labyrinth Catfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-150

Members of this family are characterized by a very long dorsal fin with 25–105 rays not preceded by a spine. The dorsal fin may be separate or continuous with the rounded caudal fin. The anal fin is long with 45–90 rays. An adipose fin is typically absent but is present in some genera. Pectoral and pelvic fins are typically present but absent in some species. ...

read more

Family Ariidae (Sea Catfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 151-154

Sea catfishes have a broad head and a semi-elongate, moderately compressed body that tapers to the caudal peduncle. A bony shield covered by a thin to thick layer of skin encases the top of the head. The mouth is wide, subterminal or terminal, and surrounded by 2–3 pairs of barbels, the number and length of which are useful for species identification. ...

read more

Family Ictaluridae (North American Catfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 155-171

North American catfishes have 4 pairs of barbels (“whiskers”) around the mouth, an adipose fin, stout spines in the dorsal and pectoral fins, and no scales. The family is endemic to North America, ranging from Canada to Guatemala and Belize. Larger species, especially the widely marketed Channel Catfish, ...

read more

Family Esocidae (Pikes and Mudminnows)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 172-176

Pikes and mudminnows have 1 dorsal fin, dorsal and anal fins far back on body, and abdominal pelvic fins. The family is restricted to North America, Europe, and northern Asia. Pikes, genus Esox, have a long slender body, a large duckbill-like snout, many small scales, and a forked caudal fin. Mudminnows, genus Umbra, are smaller fishes with a slender body and a short rounded snout. ...

read more

Family Aphredoderidae (Pirate Perches)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 177-178

This family has only one living species, characterized by having a very large mouth, the anus and urogenital openings on the throat between the branchiostegal membranes, 1 dorsal fin with both spines and rays, and thoracic pelvic fins. The anus and urogenital openings are positioned normally in the juvenile, i.e., close to the anal fin, but migrate to the throat during development. ...

read more

Family Mugilidae (Mullets)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 179-183

Mullets are semi-elongate, moderately compressed, fusiform fishes with a cylindrical head and forebody. They have large eyes and most species have a conspicuous adipose eyelid and forked caudal fin. The first dorsal fin has 4 spines and is well separated from the second dorsal fin, which has 8–10 rays. The number of anal fin elements is useful for distinguishing mullets, ...

read more

Family Atherinopsidae (New World Silversides)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 184-188

New World silversides are small, strongly compressed fishes with no lateral line, and 2 widely separated dorsal fins—the first of which is very small and has spines. Most species are silvery to nearly translucent and have a terminal mouth, a long snout, and a long sickle-shaped anal fin. Silversides swim, often in schools, near the surface of the water ...

read more

Family Belonidae (Needlefishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-192

Needlefishes have long, delicate jaws with many slender, “needlelike” teeth. The body is elongate; the large dorsal and anal fins are posterior in position and opposite one another. The lower lobe of the caudal fin, larger than the upper in many species, provides for rapid acceleration and an ability to leap above the water’s surface. ...

read more

Family Cynolebiidae (New World Rivulines)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 193-194

New World rivulines occur in Florida, the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and South America. Most of the 439 species live in fresh or brackish water; a few live in saltwater coastal environments. The family name traditionally applied to New World rivulines, Rivulidae Myers 1925, is preoccupied within Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies). ...

read more

Family Fundulidae (Topminnows)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 195-221

Topminnows are small, often brightly colored fishes with a flattened head, an upturned mouth, a large eye, no lateral line, abdominal pelvic fins, and most have the single dorsal fin located far back on body. They occur in fresh, brackish, and salt waters of North America south to the Yucatán Peninsula, Bermuda, and Cuba. ...

read more

Family Cyprinodontidae (Pupfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 222-225

Pupfishes are similar to killifishes in that they are small and have an upturned mouth, 1 dorsal fin, no lateral line, and abdominal pelvic fins. They tend to be shorter and deeper bodied than killifishes and have a deep caudal peduncle. Two of the 135 species in the family, which is found in North America, South America, Eurasia, and northern Africa, occur in Florida. ...

read more

Family Poeciliidae (Livebearers)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 226-238

Livebearers are found in fresh and brackish water. Three of the 360 species distributed throughout North and South America are native to the fresh waters of Florida. One species, the Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, is the most common freshwater fish in Florida; the other two species are also common and statewide in distribution. ...

read more

Family Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and Seahorses)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 239-243

Pipefishes are elongate and slender with a body encased in bony rings and lengthwise bony ridges. Pipefishes feed on small invertebrates and occasionally small fishes, with a long, pipelike snout that suctions prey to the mouth. Fins are typically small, with the single dorsal fin typically largest. Pipefishes have no pelvic fins. They are weak swimmers, ...

read more

Family Synbranchidae (Swamp Eels)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 244-245

Swamp eels, also known as rice eels, are characterized by an elongate eel-like body. The pectoral and pelvic fins are absent, and dorsal and anal fins are reduced to rayless ridges or folds. The caudal fin is typically absent, but a small vestigial fin may be present in some species. Scales are typically absent, but small imbedded scales are present in a few species. ...

read more

Family Mastacembelidae (Freshwater Spiny Eels)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 246-247

Freshwater spiny eels are characterized by an elongate, eel-like compressed body, and a pointed snout with a fleshy rostral appendage. The dorsal fin is long, with a series of 9–42 isolated spines and 50–131 rays. The anal fin has 2–3 spines and 30–130 rays. Pelvic fins are absent. Most species have small cycloid scales but a few species lack scales. ...

read more

Family Centropomidae (Snooks)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 248-254

Snooks are semi-elongate to deep-bodied, gray to silvery-white fishes with large terminal mouths. The lateral line is conspicuous and extends to the caudal fin edge. In most species the lateral line is black (at times faded). The lower jaw projects and the dorsal head profile is slightly to strongly concave. Teeth are villiform, small, and densely packed together. ...

read more

Family Moronidae (Temperate Basses)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 255-258

Temperate basses are compressed, deep-bodied fishes with 2 dorsal fins, the first typically with 7–9 spines, and the second with 1 spine and 11–14 rays. There is a large posteriorly pointed spine on the gill cover, a large mouth, large serrations on the edge of the preopercle, and a small gill (pseudobranch) on the underside of the gill cover. ...

read more

Family Centrarchidae (Sunfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 259-302

Sunfishes are compressed, some extremely so, and have 2 dorsal fins, the first with spines, and the second with rays. The dorsal fins are typically so broadly joined they appear to be 1 fin. They have 3–8 anal spines, pelvic fins on the thorax, and unlike temperate basses (Moronidae) no sharp spine near the posterior gill cover edge. ...

read more

Family Elassomatidae (Pygmy Sunfishes)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 303-309

Pygmy sunfishes are small (to 1¾ in. [4.7 cm]), fairly elongate and compressed fishes with no lateral line, an upturned mouth with a protruding lower jaw, and a rounded caudal fin. They are light to dark brown with many black specks on the head and body and often with black spots on the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins. Breeding males are mostly black with iridescent bronze or bright blue bars and spots. ...

read more

Family Percidae (Perches and Darters)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 310-339

Most members of this family are darters—small fishes restricted to North America. Most are less than 4 in. (10 cm) long and live on the bottoms of streams and lakes. They are slender, with 2 dorsal fins—the first with spines, and the second with rays—and pelvic fins located on the thorax with 1 spine and 5 rays. Some species are drab, ...

read more

Family Lutjanidae (Snappers)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 340-342

Snappers are slender to deep-bodied, generally fusiform, moderately compressed fishes with conspicuous canine teeth in the upper jaw. Vomerine and palatine teeth are present in most species, but never molariform teeth. The mouth is terminal. The first and second dorsal fins are united with 9–12 spines and 9–18 rays. The anal fin has 3 spines and 7–11 rays. ...

read more

Family Gerreidae (Mojarras)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 343-348

Mojarras are silvery, compressed fishes with highly protrusible, subterminal mouths and deep-rhomboidal to slender sub-rhomboidal or oval bodies. Some species show a wash of light purple, blue, or green on the silvery body. Body patterning, when present, is typically in the form of indistinct blotches, bars, or spots, though some species exhibit bold stripes or bars. ...

read more

Family Sparidae (Porgies)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 349-353

Porgies are oblong, deep-bodied, compressed fishes with short heads and prominent incisor-like or canine-like teeth in the anterior jaws. Posterior jaw teeth are molariform and palatine teeth are typically absent. Large pharyngeal mills, consisting of paverlike molariform teeth, are present in some species. Many porgies exhibit a steeply slanted dorsal head profile. ...

read more

Family Sciaenidae (Drums and Croakers)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 354-362

The drums and croakers are a large family of approximately 290 species, with highly modified gas bladders, a pair of spines at the upper posterior opercle edge, 2 anal spines, and a robust cephalic sensory system of canals and pores. Well-developed muscles associated with the gas bladder allow these fishes to produce audible “drumming” and “croaking” sounds for which they gained their common names. ...

read more

Family Cichlidae (Cichlids and Tilapias)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 363-402

Cichlids and tilapias typically have a moderately deep and compressed body; however, there is tremendous variation in body shapes, from round to elongate. All species have a single nostril on each side of the snout and most have an interrupted lateral line with typically 20– 50 scales, though some species have up to 100. ...

read more

Family Eleotridae (Sleepers)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 403-407

Sleepers are small to medium-sized fishes with stout or elongate fusiform bodies, no lateral line, and separate dorsal fins. Though united at the base or nearly so, the pelvic fins are separate. They have 6 branchiostegal rays. The latter two characteristics distinguish sleepers from the closely related gobies in Florida fresh water. Sleepers have a terminal or upturned mouth and a scaly body; many species also have a scaly head. ...

read more

Family Gobiidae (Gobies)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 408-417

Gobies are an exceedingly diverse group of bottom-dwelling fishes with 5 branchiostegal rays and, with rare exception, the pelvic fins united in the shape of a disc. All gobies in Florida fresh waters possess these characteristically disc-shaped, united pelvic fins. Gobies have no lateral line but possess a well-developed system of sensory canals and pores on the head. ...

read more

Family Osphronemidae (Gouramies)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 418-419

The family Osphronemidae, with about 130 species, is native to the fresh waters of Southeast Asia. Gouramies prefer stagnant or slow-moving waters. They are equipped with an accessory breathing organ that branches off the first gill arch. Because of its complex, convoluted structure, it is described by some as the labyrinth organ and gouramies as labyrinthodont fishes. ...

read more

Family Channidae (Snakeheads)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 420-421

Members of the family Channidae are referred to as snakeheads because of their elongate, cylindrical bodies and the presence of large scales on the head of most species, resembling the large epidermal scales (cephalic plates) on the heads of many snakes. Another snakelike feature is the somewhat flattened head with eyes located in a dorsolateral position on the anterior portion of the head. ...

read more

Family Paralichthyidae (Sand Flounders)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 422-425

Sand flounders are oval, flattened fishes with both eyes on the left side and protruding slightly above the body. The dorsal side is somber-colored, often with spots or ocelli, and capable of changing color to match the substrate. During the pelagic larval stage the right eye migrates to the left side; however, so-called “reversed” individuals, with both eyes on the right, rather than the left, are occasionally encountered. ...

read more

Family Achiridae (American Soles)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 426-428

American soles have an extremely flat body with long dorsal and anal fins that extend along the upper and lower edges of the body and both eyes on the right side of the head. The dorsal fin origin is near the mouth. One of the 36 species in the family, which is restricted to North, Central, and South America, enters the fresh waters of Florida. ...

Appendix I. Nonindigenous Fishes Collected but Not Established

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 429-434

Appendix II. Marine Fishes Occasionally Encountered in Fresh Water

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 435-436

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 437-442

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 443-448

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 449-467

About the Contributors

pdf iconDownload PDF