Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

I could never have enough words to express my deep gratitude to and appreciation of all who have nurtured the research and writing of The Criminalization of Black Children. I am nevertheless happy for the opportunity to do so within these few pages. Generous financial support in the form of...

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Introduction. Contingent Childhood: Black Children and the Making of Juvenile Justice

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pp. 1-6

On June 1, 1922, Ronald Bird, a thirteen-year- old from Kentucky, was pronounced “delinquent” in Chicago’s juvenile court. Ronald was but one among a large stream of southern black children who migrated to Chicago with their parents and found themselves greeted by a new juvenile justice system...

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1. Race-ing Innocence: The Emergence of Juvenile Justice and the Making of Black Delinquency

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pp. 7-37

In 1899, an eleven-year- old orphan named Mary Triplett was labeled “delinquent” in Chicago’s juvenile court. Even though Mary, described in court records as a “colored Baptist” from Memphis, Tennessee, had not committed any crimes, juvenile court workers—perhaps due to clerical error—filed...

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2. Boundaries of Innocence: Race, the Emergence of Cook County Juvenile Court, and Punitive Transitions

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pp. 38-69

Doris, a sixteen-year-old African American girl, her fourteen-year-old sister Hilda, and their mother, Mrs. Sanders, stood before Judge Mary Bartelme, Cook County’s first female juvenile court judge, on September 6, 1922. Alberta Moore Smith, the girls’ probation officer and one of Cook County...

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3. Constructing a Black Female Delinquent: Race, Gender, and the Criminalization of African American Girls at the Illinois Training School for Girls at Geneva

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pp. 70-96

The inhumanely stifling and overcrowded state of Lincoln Cottage, the only residence for African American girls at the Illinois Training School for Girls at Geneva, must have compounded the devastation sixteen-year-old Mary Ellen felt when the juvenile court sent her there in 1928. After quarrelling...

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4. Flight, Fright, and Freedom: Delinquency and the Construction of Black Masculinity at the Training School for Boys at St. Charles

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pp. 97-132

Rick Andrews, an eleven-year-old African American boy from Chicago, wound up at the Illinois Training School for Boys at St. Charles in 1933 because he stole an eight-year-old boy’s shoes. After trying to sell them to a shoe repair shop, he was arrested and sent to Cook County Juvenile Court...

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Epilogue

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pp. 133-138

Irene McCoy Gaines, a prominent clubwoman who had advocated on behalf of black children in Chicago since the 1920s, stood before the Senate in 1954 as a representative of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs. She urged the federal government to encourage her home state of...

Notes

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pp. 139-162

Bibliography

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pp. 163-172

Index

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pp. 173-180