Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

CONTENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xii

This book has taken a long time and the help of many people. I would like to thank the students who worked with me and all the farmers named (and unnamed) in the text who took time to respond to our questions and show us their farms. Most of the work for this book took place while I was in the philosophy department at Pacific Lutheran University. Special thanks are due to the PLU students who worked with me: Sarah Curtis, Jonathan Stout, Danielle Palmer, Kelli Blechschmidt, McKenzie Williams, and Gregor Uvila. McKenzie and Danielle also contributed photographs to the project. PLU supported...

read more

ONE Respectful Relationships: A Pragmatist Ecofeminist Take on Living with Livestock

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-24

Cold, wet, a little seasick, and thinking, “I hope we don’t die,” my students and I were in a boat off the coast of British Columbia, headed toward a vortex that we were told is hazardous to navigate. Apparently there had been a big rock that got in the way of boats, so someone had the idea to blow it up. Problem solved! But while the rock no longer posed a direct danger to boats, the swirl of currents that took its place posed its own challenges. I thought, “Here is an example of the bad version of ‘being pragmatic.’ Encounter an obstacle— remove said obstacle. Without greater understanding of the context and relationships...

read more

TWO Fish and Pragmatist Philosophy: Developing a Deweyan Ethic

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 25-44

When asked about livestock most people don’t think of fish. When asked about fishing they tend to think of people catching fish with a line. Others, aware of the realities of the fishing industry, might think of big trawlers scraping the ocean floor and pouring the contents of their nets on the deck of a boat—much of it just thrown away as unintentional bycatch. But, in fact, many fish are regularly farmed and have been for quite a while. Carp were farmed in China at least as far back as 4000 BCE, and in Europe written records point to carp farming nine hundred years ago with very large operations...

read more

THREE Beef Cattle: Animal Welfare and Leopold’s Land Ethic

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 45-75

These three advertising slogans from the Beef Council are all designed around the idea that beef is central to what one eats and who one is. In fact, beef consumption has been in decline in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) website, U.S. annual consumption increased from 28.1 to 25.5 billion pounds over the last seven years. In 2014 people in the United States moved from eating beef more than any other meat to eating chicken more than any other meat. Most attribute this change to a combination of health concerns on the part of consumers and rising...

read more

FOUR In Mixed Company: Deep Ecology, Meat Consumption, and Conservation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 76-97

Today, all mainstream animal agriculture is highly specialized and segmented. One of the ideas behind this approach is the view that it is more efficient to focus on one kind of production, and even one aspect of that production. For beef cattle that means specializing in breeding, birthing and weaning, feeding and finishing, or slaughtering and processing. Most of the farmers discussed in the previous chapter stray from the norm by taking on all aspects of the life (and death) of the cattle. They do, however, specialize in cattle. Another approach involves mixing species. This used to be commonplace....

read more

FIVE Ruminating with Ruminants: Rodeos, Rights, and Respectful Use

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 98-116

In the book so far I have presented an approach that a pragmatist philosophy of animal well-being, augmented by specific insights from ecofeminism, might take when considering the current conditions of fish and cattle. I have also presented some history regarding the introduction of livestock to the United States, with a particular focus on cattle, to illuminate the complex interactions livestock have with humans and with physical environments. I have described mainstream industrial fish and cattle operations and discussed specific examples of farmers who challenge the industrial approach in one or...

read more

SIX Sheep and Goats: An Ecofeminist Critique of Wendell Berry and Barbara Kingsolver

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 117-136

Current evidence suggests that the first animal domesticated by humans is the dog, and that this relationship is thus the longest relationship between humans and a domesticated animal. It took longer to domesticate sheep and goats, the ruminants those dogs help herd and protect. And now llamas, like dogs, have become commonly used to protect herds of sheep. Domesticated about six thousand years ago, llamas and alpacas are members of the camelid family native to the Americas. Found in the Andes, they reside in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. The llama was domesticated from...

read more

SEVEN Dairies: Animal Welfare and Val Plumwood

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 137-158

Kingsolver’s cheesemaking drew her into the world of dairies and the history of humans’ consumption of milk and its by-products. She expresses no real direct concern for the dairy animals themselves. Her concern is for human health and desire. As she notes, cheese is a way to store milk by using bacteria to turn the liquid into a solid. Many prefer raw milk for this process, but that can be hard to find given current regulations. Some people end up getting a cow or a goat in order to support their interest in making cheese, but they can’t sell the cheese without meeting strict regulations regarding where and...

read more

EIGHT Pork Production: Pigs and Pragmatism

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 159-180

The human relationship with domesticated pigs goes back nine to eleven thousand years. Domesticated in different parts of the world at different times, pigs continue to be an important part of many cultures. Known domestication events occurred in China, India, and Southeast Asia (Essig 35). There is now evidence suggesting that domesticated pigs were first introduced to Europe from China but then were replaced with pigs domesticated from European boar (Larson et al.). Many believe that humans’ increasingly sedentary way of life, along with their accumulated waste, attracted pigs to human settlements...

read more

NINE Poultry Production: Chickens, “Chicks,” and Carol Adams

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 181-208

Pig production in the United States has copied many aspects of industrial chicken production. It is ironic that pigs and poultry, who historically both shared greater proximity to humans by virtue of living in the backyard, are now the most industrialized livestock animals. While some are disturbed by this development when it comes to pigs (given their intelligence), few share the same level of concern for poultry, as they are considered stupid, or “birdbrained.” The long and complex relations between people and poultry (domesticated about eight thousand years ago), however, belie this description

read more

TEN Better Options Moving Forward: Examining Slaughter and Limiting Consumption

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 209-234

The killing of animals has long been a part of human existence, and that is unlikely to change. For many, the most troubling part of raising animals for food is that they must die. Even those animals involved in dairy and egg production are eventually killed (not to mention the “surplus” animals produced by those industries, who are killed at a very young age). While death is a loss of a kind, it is an inevitable one. If done well, the killing of livestock animals can involve little pain and suffering. To make this possible, though, on-site slaughter involving fewer animals would need to be the norm, and social groups...

BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 235-242

INDEX

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 243-251