Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

This book is based on research spanning over a decade, and draws from previously published work, which has been revisited and reworked for the purpose of this publication.

Part of 1, on the media and South African government, appeared in an earlier form as: Wasserman, Herman, and Arnold S. De Beer. “A Fragile Affair: An Overview of the Relationship between the Media and State in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20, no. 2 and 3 (2005): 192–208....

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

When the first democratically elected president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was buried at his ancestral home in Qunu on December 15, 2013, this small Eastern Cape village was swamped with international media. On the hills overlooking the valley where a big marquee tent was pitched to host the dignitaries from around the world that came to bid farewell to one of the greatest statesmen of the century, a media village was erected to house the more than 4,000 accredited journalists.1 Journalists from international networks like CNN, Telesur, Sky, BBC, and Al-Jazeera, along with local camera teams,...

PART 1: TRANSITIONS

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1. From Apartheid to a New Democracy: Areas of Shift

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pp. 17-46

It might be tempting to cast the development of the South African media post 1994 in a teleological narrative that moves between two binary points—from repression under an authoritarian government to constitutionally guaranteed freedom, from isolation during the apartheid years to the globalization of media capital and content.

However, for several reasons, the picture is not quite as simple. In the first place, the shift from apartheid to democracy does not coincide with a clear move from isolation to globalization. International media already covered South...

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2. “This Time for Africa”? Global Media Studies and the View from the South

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pp. 47-57

As we have seen from the overview in the previous chapter, the South African media underwent a number of significant shifts in terms of its ownership, occupational practices, and norms and regulations after the end of apartheid. These changes should not, however, be understood in isolation, as a result only of internal political and social changes and the contestations that accompanied them, but rather considered against the broader background of globalization. Many of the changes that can be seen reflected in the postapartheid South African media can be linked to global shifts in the media industry, changing...

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3. A Changing Media Culture: Professional Ideologies between Past and Present

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pp. 58-76

In Chapter 1, we considered the structural changes that the media underwent in the transition from apartheid to democracy, including changes in ownership and editorial staffing. It was pointed out that although significant changes can be noted in terms of both ownership and staffing, the transition included many continuities between the past and the present. The concepts of “elite continuity” and “elite renewal,” as coined by Colin Sparks, were used in the chapter to indicate the limits to transformation of the media industry. While it is clear that the transition to democracy did not bring a complete transformation of...

PART II: LOCAL CONTESTATIONS

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4. Is This Freedom? Media Ethics, “African Culture,” and Universal Values

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pp. 79-96

The following three chapters of this book will address various aspects that have to do with internal contestations in the South African media and how these relate to broader, global debates about media norms and values and the notion of a global “crisis” in journalism. This chapter provides a broad, largely theoretical, overview of the normative questions about the South African media in a postapartheid era, in particular as these relate to democracy and citizenship. A key distinction to be drawn will be that between substantive and procedural notions of ethics. The overview of these normative contestations will...

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5. Global Genres and Local Context: What Controversies around Tabloidization Tell Us about South African Media and Society

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pp. 97-111

In the previous chapter, the ongoing normative debates on South African media were discussed. The major points of focus were the seemingly opposing discourses of “global/universal” media ethics versus an “African” media ethics. In that chapter, some of the conflicts that arose from different interpretations of what the media’s role in postapartheid society should be were also highlighted. It was concluded that global influences are localized in African contexts, and that the local application of global norms are best discerned in the discursive strategies of journalists. In this chapter, the discourses around values and norms...

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6. Rethinking Global and Local: South African Perspectives on the “Future of Journalism”

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pp. 112-132

A book focusing specifically on South African media runs the risk of being classified under “area studies,” as an isolated case study located outside the more familiar discourses about media in the Global North. The stated focus of this book—on local contestations and global shifts—is meant to be understood as interlinked. South African media is first meant to be understood as heterogeneous, contested, and fractious, and then as being located within a broader global context marked also by heterogeneity, difference, and power struggles. This chapter uses debates about the “future of journalism” and the notions of...

PART III: GLOBAL SHIFTS

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7. BRICS and Beyond: Mediating New Geopolitical Relationships

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pp. 135-151

In the previous chapter, we considered what a global journalism would look like in the light of the changing global landscape where interdependencies and interrelationships have become much more pronounced and explicit on the terrain of the media.

A central argument in this book is that the South African media provides a perspective on global media studies that emphasizes interdependencies and interrelationships. One such interrelationship and interdependency that has increased in importance, visibility, and controversy in South Africa in recent...

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8. New Pressures and Opportunities: Technology, Geopolitics, and Social Change

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pp. 152-166

In the previous two chapters, we considered ways in which the South African media is located within global networks of communication, linked to new geopolitical shifts. It was argued that South African perspectives could contribute to a reconceptualization of global journalism studies, which emphasizes interrelationships and dependencies and would include viewpoints from the Global South as interventions at a theoretical level rather than merely as case studies or exemplars of theories developed elsewhere. Such a focus would be based on the understanding that the Anglo-American framework for understanding...

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Conclusion

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pp. 167-172

The aim of this book is to provide an overview of debates and contestations marking the South African media’s role and position at the end of apartheid in that country. Although the book pays close attention to specific developments in South African politics, society, and media industry, the aim is not to consider these specifics in isolation from their articulation with global trends, regional developments, and geopolitical shifts. On the contrary—a central argument of the book is that global media studies have tended to marginalize knowledge production from the South by relegating it to the domain of “case studies,” “examples,”...

Notes

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pp. 173-190

References

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pp. 191-210

Index

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pp. 211-218

About the Author

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pp. 219-222