Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface: Connecting Histories

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pp. ix-xii

In the process of completing work on my first book, The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550–1900, an observation struck me. I had spent years studying chronicles and government records, travel accounts, legal records, previous scholarship in multiple languages and anything else I could get my hands on that would help me to locate Indian merchants in locations across Central Asia ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

I began the spadework for this volume in 2002. As is often the case, I encountered many unanticipated obstacles along the way and what I had initially intended to be a project that would take four or five years to complete transformed into a much greater undertaking. But some delays are not all bad. ...

Transliteration and Abbreviations

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pp. xvii-xviii

The Shahrukhid Rulers

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pp. xix-xx

Note on Geographic Terminology

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pp. xxi-xxii

Note on Sources

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pp. xxiii-xxx

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Introduction

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pp. 1-13

The Khanate of Khoqand was an exceptionally dynamic Central Asian state that gradually emerged over the course of the eighteenth century in eastern Uzbekistan’s Ferghana (Farghāna) Valley. The Shahrukhid dynastic family that ruled Khoqand belonged to the Ming, an Uzbek political group, or for want of a better word, tribe.1 Although the term Uzbek is used more inclusively today, ...

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1. A New Uzbek Dynasty, 1709–1769

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pp. 14-49

In the northwestern part of the Ferghana Valley, a small stream flows southward, bringing snowmelt from the distant peaks into the open plains. Observed from a distance, the brown, dusty landscape is interrupted by a shock of green as agriculture becomes possible along a long, narrow strip of land stretching little more than a hundred yards to either side of the frigid water. Moving closer, ...

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2. Crafting A State, 1769–1799

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pp. 50-73

During the reign of Irdana Biy, Khoqand was little more than a city-state, one of several in the Ferghana Valley. Khoqand had escaped the worst of the destruction brought about by the Kazakh occupation of neighboring regions in the 1720s and the Persian invasions of 1737 and 1740. But it suffered at the hands of the Jungar Qalmaqs and only managed to repel them with the aid of the Yuz. ...

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3. The Khanate Of Khoqand, 1799–1811

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pp. 74-94

Narbuta Biy's long and successful reign was a gentle prelude for greater things to come. The next stage of Khoqand’s development began more abruptly during the short, tumultuous, and transformative reign of Narbuta Biy’s son, ‘Alim, who initiated his fierce efforts at centralization by directing a dreadful series of purges against all who opposed him, ...

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4. A New “Timurid Renaissance,” 1811–1822

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pp. 95-126

In January 1811, as ‘Alim Khan made his way across the frozen mountain passes southeast of Tashkent only to meet his death a few miles outside of Khoqand, his younger brother ‘Umar sat on a flat platform draped in white felt (āq kigīz), and, as one of his supporters read aloud the Sura al-Fath (“The Victory,” Sura 48 in ...

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5. A New Crisis, 1822–1844

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pp. 127-158

Whereas 'Umar Khan has gone down in history as the greatest ruler of Khoqand, his son and successor Muhammad ‘Ali, or Madali Khan, is attributed with squandering all that his father achieved. Both representations suffer from a degree of hyperbole: much as ‘Umar was not the paragon of Islamic virtue that his chroniclers present him to be, ...

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6. Civil War, 1844–1853

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pp. 159-187

In 1842, after two decades of remarkable territorial expansion and continued development of Khoqand’s agricultural infrastructure, a Bukharan invasion brought Madali Khan’s reign to a violent end. Khoqand was considerably larger than Bukhara and it boasted a formidable military, but the regime suffered a crisis of legitimacy. By the time of Madali Khan’s reign, the Shahrukhids ...

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7. Khoqand Defeated, 1853–1876

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pp. 188-209

The later rulers of Khoqand (and indeed Central Asia more generally) often appear in the historical record as despots and exploitative feudal warlords who, if they were not completely incapable of delivering effective governance to their people, had little interest in doing so. As is often the case, one can find evidence to support such a perspective, ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 210-224

Scholarly inquiry into early modern Central Asian history has generally languished behind work on other periods in the region’s long history. Citing longstanding theories of regional isolation and decline, the relatively small amount of work that has been produced on Central Asian history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries has tended to focus on themes that reify those perceptions. ...

General Glossary

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pp. 225-228

Bibliography

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pp. 229-246

Index

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pp. 247-258