Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. 5-8

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Introduction

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pp. 9-20

In 2014 Belgium celebrated 50 years of Moroccan and Turkish migration. The year commemorated the signature of bilateral agreements with Morocco and Turkey in 1964, which resulted into the migration of tens of thousands of workers to Belgium. The celebrations of 2014 were also, at once, the occasion to acknowledge the presence and the history of these migrants which have become an incumbent part of society. ...

Part 1: Research and context

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1. Social sciences and Moroccan migration in Belgium

Christiane Timmerman

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pp. 23-40

In the past, certainly between 1850 and 1950, Belgium has been a country of emigration. Initiatives such as the recent creation of the Red Star Line Museum in Antwerp make sure that this important fact is not forgotten. Migration dynamics in Belgium began to change in the second half of the 20th century, and immigration began to prevail. ...

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2. The study of Islam and Moroccan migration in Belgium

Nadia Fadil

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pp. 41-60

This introduction attends to the importance given to Islam in the study of Moroccan migration in Belgian scholarship. As a predominantly Maliki and Sunni-oriented country, where the King is also regarded as the leader of the religious community (amir al mûminin), Islam figures as a foundational element in the Moroccan nationalist narrative (Hammoudi, 1997). ...

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3. Historical research on Moroccan migration in Belgium

Karim Ettourki, Sam De Schutter, Idesbald Goddeeris

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pp. 61-84

Moroccan immigration in Belgium has had a major impact on Belgian society. In demographic terms, it has made the population younger. On the political level, it was initially a matter of migration and integration policy, as well as one of anti-migration discourse on the right, and subsequently played a role in policy making. ...

Part 2: Movement and settlement

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4. Moroccan migration in Belgium’s labor policy and labor market

Albert Martens

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pp. 87-104

Moroccan immigration to Belgium began as a labor related migration: the first Moroccans arrived as ‘guest workers’ for the Belgian coal mines. In 1974, the Belgian government issued a migration halt and new Moroccan immigrants could only settle via family reunification. This does not mean that labor issues had been solved. On the contrary, new generations of Moroccans, ...

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5. Partner migration in the Moroccan community. A focus on time and contextual evolutions

Emilien Dupont, Bart Van de Putte, John Lievens, Frank Caestecker

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pp. 105-124

Through time, there were several routes migrants of Moroccan origin could use to enter the country, such as labor and partner migration (Reniers, 1999; Schoonvaere, 2014). Previous studies on the history of Moroccan migration to Belgium reported three subsequent, partly overlapping waves that are largely influenced by the prevailing migration policy and legislation at that time (Schoonvaere, 2014; Surkyn & Reniers, 1997). ...

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6. Household division of labor and family formation among Moroccan couples at the turn of the 21st Century

Jonas Wood, Layla Van den Berg, Karel Neels

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pp. 125-146

The second half of the 20th century in Europe was characterized by substantial changes with respect to households’ organization of economic activity and childrearing. Whereas the prevalence of the male breadwinner model in Europe peaked during the 1950s and early 1960s (Cooke & Baxter, 2010), more recent decades are characterized by increasing female labor force participation. ...

Part 3: Politics and policy

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7. Towards a comprehensive integration policy: a critical analysis of how social imaginations underpin Flemish integration policies

Noel Clycq, François Levrau

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pp. 149-170

As the title of this edited volume reveals, the first official Moroccan labor migrants set foot on Belgian soil some 50 years ago. During these five decades, the ‘Moroccan community’ has grown to be one of the largest ethnic minority communities in Belgium and Flanders. During this period, a new policy agenda and discourse on the ‘integration’ of foreigners, migrants, newcomers, ...

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8. Moroccan migration and its (unique) pattern of self-organizations? Comparative reflections on Antwerp and Ghent

Nicolas Van Puymbroeck

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pp. 171-190

It is common practice in migration studies to classify migrant groups on the basis of their national descent and host nation (see for instance Gaudier & Hermans, 1991; Bousetta et al., 2005; Medhoune et al., 2015). This book also uses ‘methodological nationalism’ (Wimmer and Schiller, 2003) to define Moroccan migrants and their descendants who came to Belgium over the last fifty years. ...

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9. The shifting Moroccan policy paradigm regarding the integration of MRE’s (Moroccans Living Abroad): reconciling transnationalties and migrant integration

Rilke Mahieu, Christiane Timmerman, Nadia Fadil

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pp. 191-218

Existing literature on diaspora policies has tended to pay attention to the ways in which countries of origin incite emigrants to sustain and cultivate transnational links to their ‘homeland’ (Gamlen, 2006; Dufoix, Guerassimoff & de Tinguy, 2010; Collyer, 2013). Studies have documented the wide spectrum of strategies origin states employ in order to secure their emigrants’ transnational ties, ...

Part 4: Identity and ethnicity

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10. Becoming Berber: ethnicity and identity politics among Moroccans in Belgium

Norah Karrouche

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pp. 221-240

“I am not an Arab. It’s my country. I am Amazigh”.1 It’s a sentence I‘ve heard from many Moroccan Berber activists over the years, who were referring to their homelands as ‘their country’, a Berber nation and not an Arab one. Moroccan Berber activism denotes a particular form of cultural and political transnational activism, which opposes politics of ethnic and cultural categorization ...

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11. Fluctuating identifications among second-generation Moroccans in the Netherlands and Belgium: looking beyond personal experiences via social network analysis

Anna Berbers, Leen d’Haenens, Joyce Koeman

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pp. 241-266

The quote above shows the complexities and interrelatedness of the multiple ethnic identities of migrants and their offspring. Taking the second-generation Moroccan minorities1 living in Belgium and the Netherlands as a case in point here, we look into the intertwined relationships between: (i) the manifestations and experiences of intra-group tensions within society at large ...

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12. Migration and language use at school: an ethnographic close-up

Jürgen Jaspers

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pp. 267-284

Western schools are challenged by old and new migration waves, and Belgium is no exception to this trend. Although exact figures are unavailable, general estimations are that about 20% of pupils in Francophone Belgian schools speak another language than French at home, and that this can go up to 50% in Brussels’ French-medium schools.1 Official statistics in Dutch-speaking Belgium ...

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13. Same-sex sexualities and Belgian Moroccan communities

Wim Peumans

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pp. 285-304

It was my very first ‘official’ day of fieldwork, somewhere in October 2010, when I was introduced to the Syrian-Dutch writer and sociologist Omar Nahas by one of my interlocutors, Khalid. Omar, Khalid and I were both at the Brussels Rainbowhouse, together with dozens of others, to attend a lecture by the African American gay imam and convert to Islam, Daaiyee Abdullah. ...

Part 5: Religion and devotion

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14. Struggling with the Jinn: Moroccan healing practices and the placebo effect

Philip Hermans

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pp. 307-328

The discipline of medical anthropology investigates from the holistic and cross-cultural perspective that is typical of anthropology the ways in which people in different cultures cope with sickness and try to preserve their health. It developed in the middle of the previous century and has become an important anthropological subdiscipline with a rich tradition and an interdisciplinary character. ...

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15. How do Moroccan Muslims in Belgium deal with death and dying?

Bert Broeckaert, Stef Van den Branden, Goedele Baeke, Chaïma Ahaddour

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pp. 329-346

Since the end of the Second World War, most European countries have gradually developed into postmodern multicultural and multireligious societies. In Belgium, as in the majority of European countries, within a few decades Islam has become the second largest religion (Barrett, et al., 2000). These evolutions constitute an important challenge to the ways in which our society deals ...

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16. Islamic knowledge and pious becoming among Moroccan Muslims in the region of Brussels

Mieke Groeninck

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pp. 347-366

Fifty years went by since the unilateral agreements between Morocco and Belgium, arriving nearly at the fourth generation of Moroccan immigrants since the 1960’s. According to recent estimations, a number of 468.687 people with a Moroccan background reside on Belgian ground. 47% percent of them are living in the capital of Brussels, which in numbers results in around 218.870. ...

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17. The power of affective encounters and events: why Moroccan Belgian Sunnis become Shia

Iman Lechkar

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pp. 367-380

While academic research on Moroccan Belgians mainly explores Sunni and secular variations of Islam/Muslims (Fadil et al, 2015), there is a significant but rather unknown community of 8000 to 10,000 Moroccan Belgian Shia (Lechkar, 2012, 2017). Already In the 1970s, Morocco saw its national religious organization in Belgium (Widadiya) being challenged by the Saudi Islamic Cultural Center (ICC) which was inaugurated in 1975. ...

About the Authors

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pp. 381-386