Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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p. vii

List of Illustrations

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p. viii

Kiowa Pronunciations

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pp. ix-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xx

On a bright, sunny, late winter morning in 2009, I sat in a second-row pew next to my friend Dorothy Tsatoke Gray (1925–2010). Glancing back to observe the students seated behind us in Cache Creek United Methodist Church, I smiled inwardly, reminiscing about their hard work conducting...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxiv

Research for this book dates back to 1987, when I began conducting fieldwork in southwestern Oklahoma. Ostensibly I was there to learn about contemporary Kiowa belief systems, but as I gathered information about the Peyote religion and the kin- and community-based churches...

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Introduction: Kiowa Culture in the Nineteenth Century

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pp. 1-32

Kiowas belong to the Kiowa-Tanoan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family and are distantly related to the Tiwa, Tewa, and Towa speakers living in ten of the Rio Grande pueblos of New Mexico (Watkins 1984, 1–2). Based on a small number of shared cognates, it’s believed that the Kiowas...

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1. Christianity, Peyotism, Shamanism, and Prophecy from the Reservation Period to Statehood, 1869–1906

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pp. 33-88

The Reservation Period began shortly after the Medicine Lodge Treaty went into effect. According to James Mooney (1898, 182), the treaty marked “the beginning of the end” for the Kiowas, Comanches, Plains Apaches, Cheyennes, and Arapahos, especially in the wake of the Southern Plains...

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2. The Ghost Dance, 1890–1916

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pp. 89-146

Compared to other revitalization movements spawned during the reservation period, the Kiowa Ghost Dance emerged as a syncretic amalgam of Christianity, prophecy, tribal beliefs, and the Peyote rite. Originating from the visionary experience of Wovoka (The Cutter), a Paviotso...

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3. Christianity and Peyotism in the Postallotment Era

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pp. 147-180

The “opening” of the reservation on August 6, 1901, marked the beginning of the postallotment era in which KCA Indians lived on individual allotments, engulfed by non- Indians who homesteaded “surplus” lands. During the early decades of the new century, Christianity gradually...

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4. Peyotism and Christianity after World War II

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pp. 181-220

American Indian participation in World War II was unsurpassed compared to other ethnic groups in the United States. Based on an estimated 345,000 American Indians in 1940, some 40,000 men and women left their rural communities to work in the war factories, and another...

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Conclusion: Indigenized Christianity and Spirituality

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pp. 221-258

As discussed earlier, “classic” revitalization movements are politicalreligious movements triggered by culture change brought about by colonialism. New religions that appear feature coalesced symbols from the indigenous and colonial cultures, which reflect how people rationalize a...

Notes

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pp. 259-284

References

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pp. 285-296

Index

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pp. 297-315