Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

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Foreword: The Intertextual Network

J. Peter Burkholder

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pp. v-xviii

As long as people have been making music, people have been remaking music: taking a musical idea someone already made and reworking it in some way to make something new. That musical idea can be anything from a rhythm to a whole piece of music, and the new creation can be anything from a lullaby to a symphony. The resulting interrelationships between pieces, all covered by the umbrella term intertextuality in music, vary widely and carry meanings that range from obvious to subtle and from trivial to profound, making them a wonderful...

Contents

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pp. xix-xx

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Introduction

Lori Burns and Serge Lacasse

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pp. 1-6

Popular music is undoubtedly a multilayered palimpsest: we find not only innumerable versions of preexisting songs reborn in different styles but also entire genres based on borrowing or hybridization (e.g., hip-hop, mash-ups). Beyond obvious legal issues surrounding the use of “borrowed texts” that are often dealt with in writings about musical intertextuality, this behavior has other implications on both musical and sociocultural levels: for example, it can serve as a means for affirming stylistic lineage, parodying another artist, or critiquing sociopolitical...

Section I. Transtextualities

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1. Toward a Model of Transphonography

Serge Lacasse

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pp. 9-60

in his review of Goldmember (Roach 2002), the third movie of a trilogy featuring Austin Powers (played by Mike Myers), John Walsh (2002, 1) writes,

Allusions, nods, echoes, hommages—Austin Powers has them all. Movies today are all about yesterday’s movies.... We seem to have entered a filmic Echoland, in which virtually every major new movie is, or contains, a parody or pastiche or spoof or remake of another film or several others....

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2. Genettean Hypertextuality as Applied to the Music of Genesis: Intertextual and Intratextual Approaches

Roger Castonguay

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pp. 61-82

Since its original publication in 1982, Gérard Genette’s Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree has become a cornerstone in the field of intertextuality. Julia Kristeva (1980, 66) coined the term in 1966 to describe the many interrelationships between literary works, observing that “any text is constructed as a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another.” Such procedures in literature may be compared to musical borrowing, and indeed, Kristeva’s term has been used to identify those procedures in music since the 1980s...

Section II. Intertextual Analyses

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3. The Bitter Taste of Praise: Singing “Hallelujah”

Allan Moore

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pp. 85-105

Sitting in Waterloo’s Fishcotheque cafe last Thursday (don’t ask...), I listened to the piped-in music—yet another parade of young singers with minimal accompaniment singing doleful covers of 1960s pop hits. In the midst of which, with no change of pace or texture, I realized I was listening to the standardized verses of Leonard Cohen’s “Hallelujah.” I set to wondering what this surprisingly diminutive figure, dead little more than a week, would have made of being just another float in the carnival of past glories that passes for so much pop music these days...

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4. The Electric Light Orchestra and the Anxiety of the Beatles’ Influence

Mark Spicer

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pp. 106-136

Musical influence—how the recordings of one artist or group influenced those of another—is central to the history of pop and rock music, and there is probably no influence story more famous than that of the creative rivalry between the Beach Boys and the Beatles in the mid-1960s. The first installment in this tale of musical one-upmanship figures prominently in Love and Mercy, the excellent 2014 biopic about the Beach Boys’ Brian Wilson. In a scene from around fifteen minutes into the film, the twenty-three-year-old Brian (played by Paul Dano) and...

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5. “If You’re Gonna Have a Hit”: Intratextual Mixes and Edits of Pop Recordings

Walter Everett

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pp. 137-168

Thus proclaims the fifth stanza of Billy Joel’s “The Entertainer,” a song from his second Columbia album, Streetlife Serenade (1974). Verse by verse, the song presents a litany of the commercial pressures faced by an artist struggling to make his mark in the record industry as his work is commodified and otherwise compromised. “The Entertainer” was a first-person follow-up to the ostensibly autobiographical “Piano Man,” the title track of his previous album and a song that had enjoyed national airplay. Columbia hoped to use this new tune in...

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6. Someone and Someone: Dialogic Intertextuality and Neil Young

William Echard

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pp. 169-189

Unpredictability and surprise, stylistic diversity, and genre play are all concepts that frequently arise in the discourse surrounding Neil Young.1 Since the late 1960s, Young has been one of the central figures in rock music. His work has been both commercially successful and widely influential on other musicians. His longevity and noteworthiness stem from a number of factors, among which two of the most important are that he has frequently managed to surprise listeners and that his work is especially rich in stylistic cross-references. Such devices...

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7. Intertextuality in the Nineteenth-Century French Vaudeville

Mary S. Woodside

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pp. 190-212

This chapter illuminates one area of popular music from the early nineteenth century, the type of musical theater known generically as the vaudeville. True to the generalization that most music scholars have never considered “popular” works of past centuries very important, only a few isolated orchestral scores for these compositions have been published, even though hundreds if not thousands of them were performed in their home city, Paris, and exported to the rest of France and Europe. This study takes advantage of orchestral parts for several nineteenth-century vaudevilles preserved in the Bibliothèque...

Section III. Intermedial Subjectivities

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8. Rap Gods and Monsters: Words, Music, and Images in the Hip-Hop Intertexts of Eminem, Jay-Z, and Kanye West

Lori Burns and Alyssa Woods

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pp. 215-251

Hip-hop intertextual practices extend beyond sampling to include extensive lyrical, musical, and visual references to the work of other rappers as well as to a broad range of popular culture and media texts. As Justin A. Williams (2013, 1) has suggested, “The fundamental element of hip-hop culture and aesthetics is the overt use of preexisting material to new ends.”1 In this chapter, we are concerned with how artists build their intertexts to claim power and authority within the genre, to address the challenges of fame and celebrity status, and to...

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9. Performative Strategies and Musical Markers in the Eurythmics’ “I Need a Man”

Stan Hawkins

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pp. 252-270

Released in March 1988, the video of “I Need a Man” featured Annie Lennox in one of her most spellbinding performances. Reluctant to go on tour when their Savage album came out in 1987, the Eurythmics instead opted for a promotional video trilogy. Directed by Sophie Müller, the trilogy proved a resounding success. Sandwiched by the songs “Beethoven” and “You Have Placed a Chill in My Heart,” “I Need a Man” positions Lennox firmly within a feminist narrative that is all about fantasy, revolt, and liberation: a bored housewife undergoes...

Section IV. Intertextual Productions

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10. Timbre as Text: The Cognitive Roots of Intertextuality

Simon Zagorski-Thomas

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pp. 273-290

Ariana Grande’s “One Last Time” (2014) starts with electronic percussion and a monophonic keyboard line that begins with a bell-like tone and gradually thickens by adding raspy synthesizer tones before the harmonizing pad of the chorus fills out this texture further. There are other, perhaps more dramatic, changes, such as the development of the drum parts and the vocal arrangement, that contribute to the sense of increasing energy, but the keyboard line expands continually and gradually rather than developing via more abrupt and modular...

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11. Intertextuality and Lineage in The Game’s “We Ain’t” and Kendrick Lamar’s “m.A.A.d. City”

Justin A. Williams

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pp. 291-312

While this volume is testament to the fact that numerous genre cultures are highly intertextual, hip-hop culture arguably celebrates and references its influences more overtly and openly than other genres do. In addition to using preexisting material to new ends, many instances of hip-hop culture also demonstrate a self-consciously historical nexus that is performed both extra musically and within the recorded hip-hop texts themselves.1 This chapter outlines and extends arguments that I initially considered in Rhymin’ and Stealin’ (2013), which set out to...

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12. Mix Tapes, Memory, and Nostalgia: An Introduction to Phonographic Anthologies

Serge Lacasse and Andy Bennett

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pp. 313-330

The invention of the cassette tape recorder during the early 1960s was heralded as a significant breakthrough in domestic technology.1 By the early 1970s, cassette players were in widespread use. In addition to replacing the cumbersome reel-to-reel analog tape recorder with a small and easily portable unit, cassettes afforded a new freedom to assemble a personal collection of songs—typically recorded from the radio and/or records belonging to the cassette player’s owner or friends. Both the choice of songs and the order in which they appeared...

List of Contributors

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pp. 331-336

Index

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pp. 337-360