Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Half Title, Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-x

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xii

thank each of the authors for their extraordinary patience as the volume came together over the past few years. Matthew Napolitano deserves special recognition for helping to format the text, produce or modify figures used in the book, and tie up various loose ends. Mark Merlin, one of the world’s leading authorities on a number of psychoactive substances ...

read more

Introduction: Drugs from a Deep Time Perspective

Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Mark D. Merlin

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-19

It is often said that history repeats itself and that necessity is the mother of invention. While these two well-known maxims could equally apply to any number of contexts and situations across space and time, we would argue that they are perhaps at their most appropriate when describing the need for humans on a global scale to alter their reality. ...

read more

1. Cannabis in Ancient Central Eurasian Burials

Mark D. Merlin, Robert C. Clarke

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 20-42

Over the vast time span within which humans have known and used Cannabis for many purposes, it has been heralded as one of our supreme resources and cursed as one of our utmost burdens. Today the consumption of mind-altering Cannabis plant material for recreational or medicinal reasons is widely known. However, the original and early use of psychoactive Cannabis may have been principally ...

read more

2. Intoxication on the Wine Dark Sea: Investigating Psychoactive Substances in the Eastern Mediterranean

Zuzana Chovanec

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 43-70

For the past three decades, archaeologists have emphasized the advantages of incorporating organic residue analysis into archaeological research with the aim of addressing questions that are minimally approachable using traditional methods (Evershed 2000: 204–7; Loy 1993: 44; Pollard and Heron 2008: 9–11). ...

read more

3. Ancient Use of Ephedra in Eurasia and the Western Hemisphere

Mark D. Merlin

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 71-111

Anatomically modern humans are now believed to have arrived in Eurasia as much as 80,000–120,000 years ago (e.g., see Callaway 2015), and in bands of hunters and gatherers these early people moved east and west progressively across this massive landmass. In the process of spreading out over this vast continental region, they developed very ancient ...

read more

4. Prehistoric Intoxicants of North America

Sean M. Rafferty

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 112-127

Decades of research in the social sciences have made it clear that beyond the biological imperatives of subsistence, shelter, and reproduction, very few human behaviors are universal. Once one moves beyond these basic requirements, the idiosyncrasies of human action and thought are nearly infinite. One universal in human experience is the desire to experience altered states of consciousness ...

read more

5. Pipes, Cups, Platform Mounds, and Mortuary Ritual in the Lake Okeechobee Basin of South Florida

Victor D. Thompson, Thomas J. Pluckhahn

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 128-148

Archaeologists have explored the role of psychoactive substances and other stimulants throughout the ancient world using a host of theoretical perspectives and analytical techniques. These studies range from the identification of plant or animal remains (e.g., Davis and Weil 1992; Merlin 2003) to the documentation of specific uses (e.g., Glass-Coffin 2010) ...

read more

6. Power From, Power To, Power Over? Ritual Drug-Taking and the Social Context of Power among the Indigenous People of the Caribbean

Quetta Kaye

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-175

Could control of drugs (psychoactive substances) used in ritual contexts in the pre-Columbian Caribbean have led to the acquisition of power? And, if so, by whom, what kinds of power were involved, and for what purposes? In this chapter, I examine ritual drug use as part of the dynamics of power and power relations using archaeology and ethnohistory ...

read more

7. Intoxication Rituals and Gender among the Ancient Maya

Daniel M. Seinfeld

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 176-197

Scenes of drinking and enema use on Late Classic period (ca. AD 600– 900) Maya vase paintings provide a window into the social aspects of intoxicant use. These paintings offer a unique perspective on gender ideology among the ancient Maya. Gender ideologies are notions of what is considered proper behavior for individuals based on their culture’s gender categories ...

read more

8. Mayan Ritual Beverage Production: Considering the Ceramics

Jennifer Loughmiller-Cardinal

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 198-233

This chapter addresses areas where more attention could be focused toward the bridging of the material goods and behavior. The research presented here considers the artifact as both the outcome of a need and an artifact in and of a process. While vessels are easily identified in the material record, we must also examine the behavior ...

read more

9. The Origins of the Ayahuasca/Yagé Concept: An Inquiry into the Synergy between Dimethyltryptamine and Beta-Carbolines

Constantino Manuel Torres

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 234-264

This chapter presents the results of an inquiry into the origins of the ayahuasca/yagé concept (América Indigena 1986; Beyer 2009, 2012; Labate and Cavnar 2014; Luna 1986; Ott 1994). Ayahuasca and yagé are analogous potions that exert their psychotropic action through the synergism of their basic component alkaloids: harmine, tetrahydroharmine, ...

read more

10. A Synonym for Sacred: Vilca Use in the Preconquest Andes

Matthew P. Sayre

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 265-285

The many reasons why people seek to alter their daily lives and reach for something beyond their normal experience vary as greatly as do the means by which they seek to do so (Bell 1992, 1997; Geertz 1973). Intoxication has many quotidian and ritual manifestations, and this volume considers these divergent aspects of past plant use and emphasizes ...

read more

11. Ingredients Matter: Maize versus Molle Brewing in Ancient Andean Feasting

Justin Jennings, Lidio M. Valdez

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 286-318

As in many other regions of the world, beer is an essential part of the feasts that structure South American societies. The Napo Runa of the Ecuadorian Amazon, for example, drink copious amounts of manioc beer at special events, and the beverage is strongly linked to female sexuality (Uzendoski 2004: 889). ...

List of Contributors

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 319-322

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 323-328