Cover

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p. 1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Navigating Employment and Reintegration: An Introduction

Rose Ricciardelli, Don Evans, Adrienne Peters

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pp. 1-20

Imprisonment for any length of time gives rise to diverse experiences of strife, stress, and grief. With incarceration, an individual is removed from society, and their potential participation in educational programs or the labour market is at least temporarily—but too often permanently—stayed. Recognizing, however, that occupational positioning...

Section I: The Employment Re-Entry Enigma/Dilemma

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1. Work after Prison: One Man’s Transition

James Young

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pp. 23-34

I am a lifer. I went to prison as a teenager, was tried as an adult, and spent more than 20 years in prison. Despite my youth, my skills and experience in computers, bookkeeping, and administration made me a valuable commodity to the prison administration. The prison system has a ladder of employment mirroring that of the community. There are many...

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2. Employment and Desistance from Crime

Kemi S. Anazodo, Christopher Chan, Rose Ricciardelli

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pp. 35-58

Gainful employment, in essence, provides the foundational “building block” that former prisoners require to transition successfully into society post-release (Visher, Winterfield, & Coggeshall, 2005). Employment, beyond a means to sustain a lifestyle in free society, is a central source of identity...

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3. Employment and Criminal Offenders with Mental Illness

Krystle Martin

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pp. 59-80

For the majority of individuals, employment is a necessary means to earn an income and provide the necessities of life. Beyond fulfilling our basic needs, however, it has been said that “working is important, and indeed can be essential, for psychological health” (Blustein, 2008, p. 230). More specifically, employment can promote...

Section II: Criminal Histories, Employment Prospects, and Moving Forward

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4. Job Search, Suspended: Changes to Canada’s Pardon Program and the Impact on Finding Employment

Samantha McAleese

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pp. 83-104

The task of finding stable and meaningful employment is challenging for many Canadians, especially given the increasing competitiveness and “growing problem of surging inequality” in today’s job market (Jackson, 2010, p. 50). The job hunt is even more complicated for the approximately 3.8 million Canadians with a criminal record...

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5. Vulnerabilities and Barriers in Post-Release Employment Reintegration as Indicated by Parolees

Rose Ricciardelli, Taylor Mooney

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pp. 105-132

Researchers have long connected employment after prison with desistance from crime, although the language used tends to remain within the framework of recidivism and the “need” to protect the public from “offenders” (Myers, 1983; Tripodi, Kim, & Bender, 2009). After prison, men and women are vulnerable. They are entering society...

Section III: Employment Reintegration Programming: Supportive Strategies and Related Outcomes

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6. Is Criminal History at the Time of Employment Predictive of Job Performance? A Comparison of Disciplinary Actions and Terminations in a Sample of Production Workers

Mark G. Harmon, Laura J. Hickman, Alexandra M. Arneson, Ashley M. Hansen

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pp. 135-158

The number of individuals incarcerated in the United States has risen by more than 500 percent since the 1970s. While the United States accounts for only 5 percent of the world’s population, it accounts for 25 percent of its incarcerated population (Alexander, 2010; Bushway, 2004). As a result, every year over 650,000 prisoners are released...

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7. Transforming Rehabilitation: A Critical Evaluation of Barriers Encountered by an Offender Rehabilitation Program for South Asian/Muslim Offenders within the New Probation Service Model

Christine Victoria Hough

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pp. 159-180

In this chapter, I present observations and outcomes from a proposed evaluation of an offender rehabilitation program, ReachingOut, in the northwest of England, delivered by a third-sector organization, Arooj. As a small, non-profit agency, Arooj works within the wider, established criminal justice system of state, private, and voluntary-sector partnerships...

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8. Promoting Employment Opportunities through Mentorship for Gang-Involved Youth Reintegrating into the Community

Adrienne M. F. Peters

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pp. 181-204

In the present economic environment, many young people are un- or underemployed, as obtaining work that suits their interests and is permanent and full-time is increasingly challenging. By the end of 2015, the unemployment rate among 15–24 year olds in Canada was approximately 13 percent, where for the overall population the unemployment rate...

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9. Barriers to Community Reintegration: The Benefits of Client-Centred Case Management and Pre-Employment Skills Training

Ashley Brown

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pp. 205-220

An important component for service providers supporting former prisoners in their successful transition from prison back into the community is the use of evidence-based interventions rooted in the principles of the Risk–Need–Responsivity (RNR) model. This approach has proven valuable in guiding criminal justice employees’ safe and effective risk assessments...

Section IV: The Employment Reintegration of Unique Populations

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10. “Between a Rock and Hard Place”: How Being a “Convict” Hinders Finding Work in the Neo-Liberal, Late-Capitalist Economy

Dale C. Spencer

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pp. 223-242

The brunt of the precarity induced by late capitalism and the brutal effects of neo-liberal reason on the workplace, politics, and culture are most felt by the homeless in contemporary post-industrial cities. Criminalized and undereducated, the homeless struggle to find work and flourish. Drawing on 70 in-depth life-story interviews with homeless males...

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11. Does the “Wrongful” Part of Wrongful Conviction Make a Difference in the Job Market?

Kimberley A. Clow

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pp. 243-258

Canada currently lacks a database that tracks the number of national cases of wrongful conviction and the numerous factors that led to each of these miscarriages of justice. Innocence Canada has been involved in the exoneration of 20 individuals1 (Innocence Canada, 2017), yet despite these relatively low numbers, wrongful conviction is an important issue in Canada...

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Conclusion: Employment Reintegration

Rose Ricciardelli, Adrienne M. F. Peters

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pp. 259-276

Most people who have been in prison in Canada, as often is the case in other countries, including the United States, will eventually return to the community (Andress, Wildes, Rechtine, & Moritsugu, 2004; Travis, 2005; Visher & Travis, 2003), where they are inevitably expected to resume typical daily responsibilities. In Canada specifically, each federal prisoner...

About the Authors

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pp. 277-280