Cover

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Title Page, Cover Page

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Contents

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p. ix

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-7

"This is a local history with national pretensions. The geographical scope of the narrative is largely limited to San Antonio, Texas, and to nearby areas. Change the names of people and neighborhoods, however, and we see a similar storyline of social and political change playing out in the late sixties and early seventies in Albuquerque, Denver, Los Angeles, ..."

Part One

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The Conflict Within

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pp. 9-11

"In early 1966, the San Antonio newspapers were filled with front-page items that highlighted the protests and troubles taking place across the country. In mid-March (March 16–18), a flare-up involving “600 Negroes” had taken..."

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1. The Leaking Caste System

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pp. 13-29

"In the mid-sixties, San Antonio was, in the words of one insightful observer, 'a city of deference and racial differences; it was still a southern center.' San Antonio was 'southern' in its segregation, even though the main racial divide was between Anglo and Mexican. The city’s population (587,718 in 1960) was 51 percent Anglo..."

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2. Barrios at War

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pp. 30-54

"Although the great majority of barrio youths were not in 'conflict gangs,' the notoriety of the latter dominated the image of young Mexican Americans. From the mid-fifties through the mid-sixties, gang warfare had broken out on the violence occurred in..."

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3. Organizing Unity

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pp. 55-79

"From the mid-fifties through the mid-sixties, gang warfare had broken out in San Antonio every two years. Then, in 1969, such incidents ceased for nearly a decade. The common causes of troubles (pedos) were still around, and gang activity was still taking place, as group worker Jesse Sauceda noted, but it was 'not as explosive as before, porque [because] it doesn’t involve ten to fifteen guys on each side but maybe just one or two guys.' The gang identity was still there, but it had been 'weakened as far ..."

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4. A Congressman Reacts

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pp. 80-98

"Speaking before Congress, Henry B. Gonzalez described, with a tone of bewilderment, the panorama that he saw unfolding in his district: who play at revolution and those who imitate the militance of others. . . . We have those who cry 'brown power' only because they have heard 'black power' and we have those who yell..."

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5. Kill the Gringos!

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pp. 99-116

"Emboldened by their performances in the Del Rio protest and the San Antonio city election, the MAYO leadership decided to respond to Congressman Gonzalez’s charges by turning up the rhetorical heat. The strategy seemed to follow Alinksy’s ninth rule for radicals: pick a target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it. This, in any case, was what MAYO leaders successfully pulled off through a press conference in which they called for the elimination of the 'gringo' and questioned the manliness of a certain ..."

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6. The Berets Rise Up

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pp. 117-143

"In the frenzied times of the late sixties and early seventies, even an apparent failure could generate more social movement activity. Put another way, there were no failures, only experiments. So long as a core group remained committed..."

Part Two

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Marching Together Separately

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pp. 145-150

"In September of 1971, an extraordinary but little noticed political event took place in San Antonio. A few key Chicano businesses and organizations representing a broad political spectrum—Mario’s Restaurant, LULAC, the GI Forum, MAYO, and Mungia’s Printers—organized La Semana de la Raza, a week-long celebration of movement politics and culture. Two aspects made ..."

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7. Women Creating Space

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pp. 151-171

"The patriarchal aspects of Mexican culture have been much examined and need not be detailed here. Open to question is the variability of gender relations behind closed doors—that is, in the private world of the family.1 Publicly, women were expected to act in subordinate backstage suppport roles, and this was generally true in the early years of the Chicano..."

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8. Batos Claiming Legitimacy

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pp. 172-190

"MAYO was the base for the formation of two very different organizations, each reflecting a distinct social class base. There was some overlap, but generally the militant college students went into the Raza Unida Party, and the batos lege students. A typical sentiment was that of Lalo Mart

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9. Fragmenting Elements

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pp. 191-207

"In the previous chapters, I have described the class and gender tensions that underlay much of the organizational structuring within the Chicano movement. Specifically, as MAYO evolved from a community organization to a political party, it gave rise to gendered and class-based organizations. Both the women and the batos locos involved with MAYO–Barrios Unidos used the language and symbolism of the movement to craft group-specific agendas and efforts. A lingering question—a residue, perhaps, of ..."

Part Three

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After the Fury

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pp. 209-211

"By the mid-seventies, the Chicano movement in Texas and the Southwest was largely exhausted. The reasons were many. Internal friction about leadership and tactics, and external pressure applied by police authorities, as discussed previously, were critical debilitating factors. On the other hand, some movement aims had become institutionalized and its activist elements accommodated. Some victories had been won..."

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10. Several Wrong Turns

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pp. 213-236

"Thus far, my narrative explanation has largely described the movement and the lives of those involved from an organizational perspective. Here I wish to shift focus and let the lives of a few key individuals—individuals who dominated the public arena in..."

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11. A Transformation

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pp. 237-262

"Los Angeles Times columnist Frank del Olmo, reminiscing in 1997 on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Raza Unida Party’s national convention, commented that two events during the month of September 1973 marked both the senith and nadir of the Chicano movement. He had traveled to El Paso to report on the convention, one of the few occasions that..."

Appendix On Interpreting the Chicano Movement

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pp. 263-270

Notes

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pp. 271-317

Glossary

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pp. 319-320

Bibliography

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pp. 321-334

Index

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pp. 335-344