Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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p. vii

List of Tables

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p. viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

During my career I have published numerous articles and book chapters in Europe and the Western Hemisphere. Although the majority of these publications are in Spanish, they are not widely known outside of the country of publication. Since my work focuses primarily on Mexico, I know a number of scholars in that country. Some of these colleagues have noted that many of my articles and book chapters are...

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A Note on Usage

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pp. xiii-xiv

Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) had been en route to India when he tripped over the islands of the Caribbean; therefore the inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere came to be called indios (Indians) and their lands las indias (the Indies). In the eighteenth century, however, the continent was renamed América and its inhabitants, americanos. Since America is the name of the Western Hemisphere,...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-30

John Adams is not the only one to have believed the Hispanic world incapable of self- government. Many scholars then and now believe that constitutional representative government is alien and unsuited to the supposedly conservative society of the Hispanic world.1 They erroneously believe that the Spanish Monarchy was highly centralized, they confuse absolute with autocratic rule, and they equate the modern...

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1. The Nature of Representation in New Spain

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pp. 31-50

As part of the worldwide Spanish Monarchy, the Viceroyalty of New Spain had a long tradition of representation that began during the Spanish settlement of America and reached its apogee with the Hispanic Constitution of 1812. The Spanish Monarchy, a major segment of Occidental civilization, drew upon a shared Western European culture that originated in the ancient classical world. The cities or los pueblos, and...

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2. The Origins of the Quito Revolution of 1809

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pp. 51-80

On August 10, 1809, quiteños, fearing that Spain was lost to the French, took control of the government and established a Junta Suprema de Quito (supreme junta of Quito) to defend the Holy Faith, the king and the patria. Yet the other provinces of the Audiencia or Reino de Quito did not support the capital’s actions. On the contrary, the cities of Guayaquil, Cuenca, and Popayán raised forces to crush the new regime in...

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3. Clerical Culture in the Kingdom of Quito

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pp. 81-102

The Catholic faith played a fundamental role in uniting the Spanish Monarchy. Although the people of its various realms retained their languages, laws, and customs, they all had to be Catholics. The “one true faith” defined Hispanic society. After the defeat of the last Muslim kingdom of Granada and the expulsion of Jews in 1492, non- Catholics could not reside in the lands governed by the Spanish rulers who...

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4. Citizens of the Spanish Nation

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pp. 103-124

The Constitution of 1812 triggered a great political revolution throughout the Hispanic world. Beginning with the pioneering article published by Nettie Lee Benson in 1946, scholars studied the nature of the new constitutional elections, primarily in Mexico City.1 As a result, some academics have interpreted the constitutional revolution as a phenomenon limited strictly to the principal cities and to the elites. According to...

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5. The Emancipation of America

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pp. 125-148

The emancipation of most of America— that is, the Western Hemisphere— is a complex process that began as a series of reactions by the settlers to the events that occurred in their madres patrias (motherlands). Although Spanish- American, British- American, and French- American societies were profoundly different, each began the process of independence in response to metropolitan threats to their self- interests and...

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6. U.S. Independence and Spanish American Independence

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pp. 149-162

After independence, the United States of America became one of the most successful nations in the world. It has enjoyed a stable representative government and economic prosperity for more than two centuries. Observers argue it is natural, therefore, to believe that it owes its success to its form of government. A prominent historian, for example, recently asserted, “the American Revolution was an event of truly...

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7. Caudillos and Historians

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pp. 163-188

Historians and subsequently other social scientists use the concept of the caudillo, a particular type of politician, to explain events that have not been adequately researched. The term caudillo is not unique to the Spanish language. It is the leader in English, der Führer in German, and il duce in Italian, and it simply means “he who directs.” Nevertheless, scholars imbue the terms caudillo and caudillaje (the actions of the...

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8. New Directions and Old Questions

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pp. 189-200

There have been many “new histories” in the long history of the discipline. In 1932 writing about the new history of the time, Carl Becker argued that the difference between the new and the old was what he called a “climate of opinion.” He noted in his book, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth- Century Philosophers, that although “the eighteenth century was preeminently the age of reason . . . the Philosophes were...

Source Acknowledgments

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pp. 201-202

Notes

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pp. 203-232

Bibliography

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pp. 233-262

Index

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pp. 263-279