Cover

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Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Introduction

David Stanley

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pp. 1-8

Glacier National Park was established in 1910 largely in recognition of its spectacular geology: glaciated U-shaped valleys, paternoster lakes (so named because they resemble rosary beads on a cord), cup-shaped basins called cirques containing tarns (tiny lakes), and hanging valleys from which fall shimmering waterfalls hundreds of feet high. ...

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I. Native People

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pp. 9-11

The Glacier Park area has been familiar territory for Native Americans for a very long time. Rich archeological sites at lakes like Middle and Lower Waterton and Lower St. Mary’s show thousands of years of usage, and the piskun or buffalo jumps—sites where Indian people worked together to stampede bison over steep cliffs to obtain meat, hides, and other parts—are numerous in the region. ...

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1. My Introduction to the Blackfeet

Walter McClintock

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pp. 12-18

Yale-educated Walter McClintock (1870–1949) first saw northwestern Montana in 1896, where he soon came to know William Jackson, veteran Piegan scout and guide for James Willard Schultz and George Bird Grinnell. McClintock spent much of the next two decades with the Blackfeet people, observing their ceremonies and taking photographs. ...

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2. My-stu-bun, Crowfeather Arrow’s Revenge

Percy Bullchild

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pp. 19-25

Many early explorers, travelers, and historians of the Glacier Park region have claimed that Native Americans did not venture into the mountains, either because they preferred other country or because they feared evil spirits or ghosts. Neither of these ideas is true; Native American groups visited the mountains frequently to obtain game, medicinal herbs, mineral colors for paints, ...

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3. The Last Great Battle of Eagle Head

George Comes at Night

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pp. 26-28

Chief Mountain is a monolith, an outrider of the Lewis Overthrust, part of an immense mass of rock that was pressed eastward by tectonic activity many millions of years ago. Depending on the angle of view, Chief can be seen as a rectangular block or a towering pillar rising from the plains, exactly on the border of the Blackfeet Reservation and Glacier National Park. ...

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4. The Jealous Women

James Willard Schultz

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pp. 29-32

James Willard Schultz (1859–1947) came from a prosperous family in Boonville, New York, but as a young man he was determined to “go West,” which he did at age eighteen. Arriving at Fort Benton, Montana, by steamboat, he found work with James Kipp, the famous Native American trader of the region. Eventually, Schultz married a young Blackfeet woman, Nät-ah’-ki, ...

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5. Mountain Sheep Boy

Peter Beaverhead

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pp. 33-36

In 1959–60, anthropologist Leslie B. Davis conducted research among the Upper Pend d’Oreille (Kalispel) people of the region west of Glacier National Park. Most of the narratives that Davis collected were from Peter Beaverhead (b. 1899), who also authored a book, Mary Quequesash’s Love Story: A Pend d’Oreille Indian Tale. Though the narrative below is not specifically connected with the Glacier Park region, ...

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II. Explorers

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pp. 37-38

Beginning, perhaps, with explorer and trader David Thompson at the end of the eighteenth century, Anglo-American men explored the edges of what later became Glacier National Park. Following Meriwether Lewis’s exploratory probe in 1806, which brought him and his three men within twenty miles of the current park boundary, fur trappers and traders looked for beaver, ...

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6. From My Reminiscences

Raphael Pumpelly

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pp. 39-43

One of the nation’s best-known geologists and explorers, Raphael Pumpelly (1837–1923) built a worldwide reputation for his exploratory trips to Asia in the 1870s, including China, Mongolia, and the Gobi Desert. In 1882–83, he was hired by railroad magnate Henry Villard of the Northern Pacific Railroad to survey the Northwest for possible extensions of the railroad as well as for agricultural, ...

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7. From Sport among the Rockies: The Record of a Fishing and Hunting Trip in North-Western Montana

Charles Spencer Francis

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pp. 44-48

Following the trail established by the articles of James Willard Schultz and George Bird Grinnell, four young men from Troy, New York, set off on a hunting and fishing trip to northwest Montana in August 1888. One of the party was Charles Spencer Francis (1853–1911), son of the editor of the Troy Daily Times. Referring to himself as “the Scribe”—his companions were called “the Sport,” ...

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8. The Crown of the Continent

George Bird Grinnell

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pp. 49-62

George Bird Grinnell (1849–1938) was born to a prosperous family in New York City; in fact, when he was a boy, his family lived on the former estate of the great naturalist, John James Audubon, overlooking the Hudson River. Grinnell studied zoology at Yale University and soon after graduation accompanied, as a naturalist, George Armstrong Custer on a military expedition into the Black Hills of South Dakota. ...

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9. From Our National Parks

John Muir

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pp. 63-64

One of the great conservationists in American history, John Muir (1838–1914) explored the Sierra Nevada on foot, advocated for wilderness preservation, visited wild areas from California to Alaska, and founded the Sierra Club. His writings inspired generations of Americans with his eloquent descriptions of the “range of light” (the Sierras), the cathedral groves of sequoias, ...

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10. Lake Angus McDonald and the Man for Whom It Was Named

Helen Fitzgerald Sanders

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pp. 65-78

Helen Fitzgerald Sanders (1883–1955) was a prominent Montana writer, best known for her three-volume history of Montana (1913) and for her novel, The White Quiver, about the Blackfeet people. Early in 1910, just before the designation of Glacier as a national park, she completed her book Trails through Western Woods, which describes the area that became Glacier ...

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11. From Avalanche

Albert L. Sperry

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pp. 79-84

Dr. Lyman B. Sperry was a Midwestern physician interested in geology when he first visited northwestern Montana on the newly completed Great Northern Railway. As a geologist, he was fascinated by the prospect of undiscovered glaciers in the United States—until Pumpelly’s exploratory trip, it was assumed that glaciers did not exist in the Rockies. ...

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III. Visitors

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pp. 85-86

Glacier National Park has attracted casual visitors since the 1880s and ’90s, the days of hunting expeditions on the east side and of the first hesitant tourists (such as Carrie and Robert Strahorn) arriving on the new railroad. Once the park was established, tourist facilities were soon developed, primarily through the influence of the Great Northern Railway and its president, Louis W. Hill. ...

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12. From Fifteen Thousand Miles by Stage

Carrie Adele Strahorn

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pp. 87-95

About 1893, Carrie Adele Strahorn (1854–1925) came to Lake McDonald in the company of her husband, Robert E. Strahorn, whom she called “Pard.” Robert was an employee of the Union Pacific Railroad, charged with finding resources and opportunities—and publicizing them—to benefit the railroad through increased passenger and freight traffic, land sales, and other commercial ventures. ...

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13. From Through Glacier Park: Seeing America First with Howard Eaton

Mary Roberts Rinehart

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pp. 96-108

Between 1906 and 1940, Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876–1958) was one of the most popular writers in the United States. She was especially known for her murder mysteries and has been called “the American Agatha Christie,” though her work actually precedes Christie’s by well over a decade. Rinehart authored dozens of novels and short stories, many of which appeared in popular magazines of the day. ...

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14. From Tenting Tonight: A Chronicle of Sport and Adventure in Glacier Park and the Cascade Mountains

Mary Roberts Rinehart

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pp. 109-119

In 1916, Rinehart returned to Glacier with her husband (“the Head”) and their three teenaged sons, whom she calls “Big Boy,” “Middle Boy,” and “Little Boy.” They were accompanied by a motion picture photographer, a still photographer, and a mysterious man called “Bob,” who seemed to be a sort of director/producer of the expedition. ...

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15. Two Medicine or White Magic Lakes

Agnes C. Laut

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pp. 120-124

Agnes C. Laut (1879–1936) spent most of her youth in Winnipeg, Manitoba. She eventually moved to the United States, settling in New York State, but remained a loyal Canadian; many of her thirty-odd books focus on the history of western Canada and the United States. In 1925, she was invited to join a Great Northern Railway excursion, the “Upper Missouri Historical Expedition,” ...

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16. Carefree Youth and Dudes in Glacier National Park

Dorothy M. Johnson

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pp. 125-134

Dorothy M. Johnson (1905–1984) was one of the American West’s finest writers. Born in Iowa, she grew up in the little railroad town of Whitefish, not far from the western entrance to Glacier. A prolific author of articles, essays, short stories, and novels, Johnson wrote the stories on which were based three notable films: The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, A Man Called Horse, and The Hanging Tree. ...

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IV. Characters

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pp. 135-136

Parks attract people of vivid personalities—loners, wanderers, travelers, storytellers, jokesters, singers, and craftspeople. Stories about these folks abound and give the national park a human presence, a life, which complements the wilderness setting. The character sketches that follow exemplify Glacier’s power to draw unique people: Louis Hill, ...

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17. Louis Hill’s Dream: Glacier National Park in 1915

Dave Walter

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pp. 137-140

Son of James J. Hill (the so-called Empire Builder), Louis W. Hill Sr. (1872– 1948) became president of the Great Northern Railway upon his father’s retirement in 1907. Working behind the scenes, Louis encouraged Congress to pass the enabling act that established Glacier National Park; President Taft signed the bill into law on May 11, 1910. Almost immediately after, ...

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18. The Legendary Joe Cosley

Jerry DeSanto

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pp. 141-152

Joe Cosley (1870–1944)—Park Service ranger, trapper, poacher, fugitive—remains one of the great legendary characters of Glacier National Park. As longtime ranger and historian Jerry DeSanto (b. 1928–2017) explains in this article, Cosley was charismatic, elusive, and mysterious throughout his life. A writer himself, Cosley elaborated on his own legend in a few pamphlets and poems, ...

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19. From Exit Laughing

Irvin S. Cobb

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pp. 153-156

Irvin S. Cobb (1876–1944) was one of America’s most popular writers and humorists during the first half of the twentieth century. A native of Paducah, Kentucky, Cobb became known as the “Duke of Paducah,” in tribute to his charming reminiscences about his small-town boyhood. An acquaintance of cowboy artist Charles M. Russell, Cobb and his wife spent the summer of 1925 ...

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20. Letters from Bull Head Lodge

Charles M. Russell

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pp. 157-187

The most famous and beloved summer resident of Lake McDonald during the first quarter of the twentieth century was the “Cowboy Artist,” Charlie Russell (1864–1926). A native of St. Louis, Russell first came to frontier Montana in 1880 when he was sixteen. Supporting himself as a herder of sheep, cattle, and horses (in that order), he gradually developed his artistic talents until he became, ...

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21. Bootleg Lady of Glacier Park

John Fraley

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pp. 197-205

John Fraley is a writer who has worked for Montana’s wildlife management agency in northwest Montana for thirty years. His intensive research into the history of the Flathead Valley and the three branches of the Flathead River have led to numerous articles and books, including Uncommonly Normal; A Women’s Way West: In and around Glacier Park from 1925 to 1990; ...

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22. From Giggles from Glacier Guides

Jim Whilt

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pp. 206-208

National parks produce all kinds of folklore, from historical narratives to rituals to tall tales. Many of these are produced by park workers—rangers, maintenance workers, hotel employees. The wranglers—the cowboys who guide tourists on horseback trips—are an especially rich source of storytelling, and virtually every park in the West has local characters who tell exaggerated stories about, ...

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V. Adventurers

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pp. 209-211

Glacier National Park, like all extreme pieces of topography, attracts the adventurous, the ambitious, and—let’s face it—the foolhardy. Accidents do occur, but the sense of wonder that comes from Glacier’s backcountry—its rivers, mountains, lakes, and trails—more than makes up for the danger and discomfort of wandering in rugged terrain. Some adventurous souls—such as Doug Peacock, ...

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23. Climbing Red Eagle

Stephen Graham

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pp. 212-217

In the early 1920s, Vachel Lindsay (1879–1931) was probably the most popular poet in the United States. A charismatic figure on stage, he gave readings all over the country, characterizing his work as “singing poetry.” His most popular poems, published in 1914 and 1915, were “The Congo” and “General William Booth Enters into Heaven.” On a reading tour of England in 1920, ...

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24. Wanderings Afoot

Norman Clyde

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pp. 218-221

Norman Clyde (1885–1972) was one of the most famous American mountaineers of the twentieth century. He claimed dozens of first ascents throughout the American West and was best known for his prodigious exploits in the Sierra Nevada of California. He frequently embarked on long treks through the mountains, climbing peaks that appealed to him, usually going alone. ...

25. A Forest Fire Explosion

H. T. Gisborne

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pp. 222-226

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26. From Grizzly Country

Andy Russell

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pp. 227-240

Andy Russell (1915–2005) was a writer, hunting guide, and rancher who lived most of his life in the foothills just east of Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta. Deeply knowledgeable about animal behavior and mountain ecosystems, Russell wrote nearly a dozen books, including Trails of a Wilderness Wanderer: True Stories from the Western Frontier (2000), ...

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VI. Animals

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pp. 241-242

The wild animals of Glacier are an eternal source of fascination for visitors, from the mountain goats and bighorn sheep of the heights to the moose and whitetail deer of the lowlands. Ground squirrels and other rodents are everywhere, the basis for the food chain. But it is the carnivores that get the most attention, from bobcats to cougars, weasels to wolverines, ...

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27. Grizzly Encounters

Don Burgess

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pp. 243-249

Don Burgess spent over twenty summers building and maintaining trails and bridges in Glacier Park and the national forests of western Montana and northern Idaho. A former NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities) teacher/ scholar of the year for his work as an English teacher at a tribal high school on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana, ...

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28. The Black Grizzly

Doug Peacock

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pp. 250-261

Doug Peacock served two tours of duty as a Green Beret medic in Vietnam. When he returned to the United States, experiencing combat flashbacks and what today we would call post-traumatic stress, he sought the wilderness and eventually came to Glacier, where he worked as a seasonal fire lookout at Scalplock Mountain in the southern part of the park ...

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29. Predator Puma

Pat Hagan

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pp. 262-266

Pat Hagan has worked at Glacier as a seasonal naturalist for nearly thirty years. Naturalists are the uniformed personnel who give campfire talks, take visitors on trail walks and hikes, and provide information at visitor centers and even parking lots about the park’s animals, plants, and geology. Hagan has collected many humorous anecdotes about his park experiences, ...

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30. From A Beast the Color of Winter: The Mountain Goat Observed

Douglas H. Chadwick

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pp. 267-272

Douglas H. Chadwick (b. 1948) is a prolific writer and student of the natural world. Based in the Glacier Park area, Chadwick is a long-time contributor to National Geographic magazine and the author of many books, including True Grizz: Glimpses of Fernie, Stahr, Easy, Dakota, and Other Real Bears in the Modern World (2013) ...

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31. From Fate Is a Mountain

Mark W. Parratt

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pp. 273-284

Mark Parratt first came to Glacier with his family in 1946. For the next eighteen summers, his father, Lloyd, served as a ranger naturalist at both Lake McDonald and St. Mary Lake. While spending every summer in Glacier, Mark and his brothers, Monty and Smitty, were constant companions in exploring the park’s wonders. ...

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VII. Modern Times

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pp. 285-286

In the twenty-first century, Glacier continues to face some of the same problems that confront other national parks, as well as some specific to Glacier. White pine blister rust, the spruce bark beetle, and other invasive species have decimated many of the park’s forests, and exotic plants continue to make inroads along roadsides and campgrounds. ...

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32. Fire Lookout: Numa Ridge

Edward Abbey

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pp. 287-299

Edward Abbey (1927–1989) was known as a fierce environmentalist, a principled anarchist, a suspected monkeywrencher (one who commits sabotage in the cause of the environment), a classic curmudgeon, and an all-around rabble-rouser. His many books—novels, collections of essays, and the classic Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness, ...

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33. Glacier National Park, Montana

Terry Tempest Williams

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pp. 300-311

Terry Tempest Williams is a renowned writer of essays and books pertaining to the natural world as well as being an activist for environmental causes. Her lyricism and passion infuse her prose and poetry with a deeply felt commitment to the preservation and restoration of wilderness. ...

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34. From The Melting World: A Journey across America’s Vanishing Glaciers

Christopher White

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pp. 312-316

Between 2008 and 2012, Christopher White (b. 1956) made frequent visits to Glacier National Park to determine the fate of the park’s glaciers and their relevance to climate change. In his travels, Smith focused on the work of U.S. Geological Survey employee Dan Fagre, whose research aims to determine how and why the park’s glaciers are shrinking. ...

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35. North Fork: River (Where I Went in Search of Wildness)

Christine Byl

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pp. 317-330

In the mid-1990s, Christine Byl (rhymes with “smile”) graduated from college and headed west, ending up with a seasonal job as a “traildog”—a trail maintenance laborer—in Glacier National Park. “I was not born to labor,” she writes, “nor led to it by heritage or expectation.” With virtually no construction or maintenance experience, ...

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36. Waterton-Glacier: Keystone of the Yellowstone to Yukon Corridor

Harvey Locke

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pp. 331-338

Harvey Locke (b. 1959) is a leading expert on national parks, wilderness, and large-landscape conservation. He has worked extensively on preserving the Waterton-Glacier area since 1989 and was involved in the effort to gain UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) ...

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37. In Glacier: Sonata in Earth Minor

B. J. Buckley

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pp. 339-342

B. J. Buckley is a Montana poet who has taught poetry and writing in public schools for over forty years. Her most recent poetry collection is Corvidae (2014). Section I of the following poem was first published in About Place Journal, May 2015. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 343-344

In addition to the many great writers who have contributed encouragement and suggestions, as well as their work, to this collection, I want to acknowledge these long-time Glacier Park stalwarts: George Bristol, Curt Buchholtz, Don Burgess, Daryl and Kate Gadbow, Mike Gerard, John Gray, Bill Hutchison, Dave Krake, Doug Medley, Jan Metzmaker, ...

Timeline of Major Events in Park History

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pp. 345-348

Further Reading

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pp. 349-352

Sources and Permissions

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pp. 353-356

Illustrations

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pp. 188-196