Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Abbreviations

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pp. ix-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

This book was the product of not only my imagination, research, and writing but also the encouragement and help of many others. This project started just as I was leaving Rutgers University in 2013 to join the faculty in the Department of International Development at King’s College London. I also thank my colleagues in the Department of International Development for providing me with excellent feedback during earlier presentations of this project. Throughout the final stages of this project, my research assistant, Josh Lomax at King’s...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-33

In recent years, political leaders in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, a group of nations known as the BRICS, have aspired to become world leaders in political and economic development. Their growing economies, cultural influence, and heightened participation in foreign affairs have earned the respect of the international community. This exclusive group of countries has worked together to reformulate international discussions and policies on issues ranging from fair and free trade to human rights, while defending the...

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2. Brazil’s Response to HIV/AIDS and Obesity

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pp. 34-76

In the midst of its transition to democracy and introduction of free market reforms, at the turn of the twenty-first century, Brazil confronted the HIV/ AIDS and obesity epidemics. The government’s failure to respond immediately through effective prevention and treatment programs drew criticism and pressure from influential international institutions such as the UN and the WHO. Seeking to improve the government’s international reputation in health, Brazil’s political leaders immediately began to provide more political and...

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3. India’s Response to HIV/AIDS and Obesity

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pp. 77-113

By the 1980s, India’s emerging democratic and economic system, like Brazil’s, was confronting the HIV/AIDS and obesity epidemics. With both epidemics highly contested among the country’s politicians and bureaucrats, for a variety of reasons—often nothing to do with public health—India’s government did not immediately respond. However, with the arrival of international criticism and pressure, by the early 1990s the situation began to change: politicians pursued a stronger policy response to HIV/AIDS and obesity in order to promote...

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4. China’s Response to HIV/AIDS and Obesity

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pp. 114-156

In the late 1980s, while making efforts to strengthen its economy and political institutions, China joined Brazil and India in confronting the HIV/AIDS and obesity epidemics. Like the governments of Brazil and India, China’s government did not immediately engage in a strong policy response; China would only achieve this after the arrival of criticism and pressure from influential international institutions such as the WHO and the UN. Building on a foreign policy tradition of striving to build the government’s international reputation...

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5. Responding to HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis in Russia

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pp. 157-201

While having a different history and political culture, by the 1980s Russia had joined Brazil, India, and China in confronting a series of public health threats, including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. In contrast to the other BRICS nations, however, Russia’s negative geopolitical positioning generated few incentives for the government to pursue a stronger policy response to these epidemics when confronted with international criticism and pressure. Given the government’s foreign policy legacy of positioning Russia as an...

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6. Responding to HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis in South Africa

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pp. 202-247

Along with South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 and its unwavering commitments to political stability and economic growth, in the 1990s it joined the other BRICS nations in confronting the threat of health epidemics. As in Russia, HIV/AIDS and TB posed such a threat. When its poor response to the epidemics aroused international criticism and pressure, South Africa’s leaders did not use this situation to pursue a stronger policy response with an eye to bolstering the government’s international reputation in health. Instead...

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7. Conclusion

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pp. 248-260

Despite their similar ambitions to become more economically integrated and involved in the international community, the BRICS nations have differed considerably in their aspirations to develop effective public health systems. This became clear when the HIV/AIDS epidemic emerged in the 1980s, followed in the 1990s by the resurgence of tuberculosis and more recently by the obesity epidemic. Political leaders in all of the BRICS did not immediately respond to these epidemics, for a variety of political and cultural reasons unique...

References

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pp. 261-298

Index

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pp. 299-304