Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

At an early stage of research on Kujiki I was exposed to the writings of Motoori Norinaga, and discovered there were a number of his works I would need to have access to further my study. In the spring of 1985 I was fortunate to find the 21-volume set of Motoori Norinaga zenshū at a secondhand bookstore. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-24

In the December 1934 inaugural number of the academic journal Kokugaku, the eminent Japanese linguist Yamada Yoshio (1875–1958) contributed the opening article, aptly titled “What Then Is Kokugaku?” There he notes that most people in the present do not know what Kokugaku actually means or what is included under the umbrella term (1942:31). ...

Part One: Views on Poetry

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Man'yo Daishoki

Keichu

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pp. 26-44

[Keichū began working on Chōryū’s unfinished manuscript in 1683, and completed his work by 1690. The word daishō 代匠 in the title appears in a number of Chinese works, notably Lunheng and Wenxuan, and refers to work begun by one skilled person later being finished by another person. This is clearly a nod to the work of Chōryū. ...

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Kokka Hachiron

Kada no Arimaro

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pp. 45-68

[Written at the request of Tayasu Munetake, Arimaro wrote down his feelings about waka, and inadvertently placed himself at odds with his master, Munetake. He categorized poetry into eight theories, hence the title. The section that incited the most controversy was “The Significance of Poetry,” where Arimaro declared that poetry was not suitable as a tool to govern society or people. ...

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Kokka Hachiron Yogon Shui

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 69-82

[After Arimaro had written his honest feelings about poetry, Tayasu Munetake wrote his own rebuttal, and then invited Mabuchi to contribute his ideas to the debate. Mabuchi produced this response in 1742. The current manuscript we have appears to be a draft, as it does not conclude as a completed manuscript should. For example, it only contains seven treatises instead of eight. ...

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Kaiko

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 83-93

[It appears that Mabuchi felt that Kokka hachiron yogon shūi served a different purpose than what he wanted his students to glean from his ideas on poetry, which ideas had matured somewhat since the Kokka Hachiron Controversy. Thus, he wrote this short essay for the instruction of his students. In spite of this desire, it is unclear why this manuscript was never disseminated to his students. ...

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Man'yo Kaitsushaku to Shakurei

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 94-114

[This little-known work of Mabuchi’s examines a variety of issues in relation to Man’yōshū, its history, text, and interpretation. It demonstrates Mabuchi’s high level of skill and insight into diverse problems surrounding Man’yōshū. It is easy for scholars and students in the present to underappreciate Mabuchi’s insight because we have so much knowledge at our fingertips today. ...

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Ashikawa Obune

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 115-138

[Written when Norinaga was only twenty-six, he sets forth his feelings on poetry, which remain rather constant throughout his life. Framed in a common question and answer format, Norinaga articulates that poetry is written from feelings found in the heart of all creatures. When people put on airs, they begin to stifle the heart, ...

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Man'yoshu Kogi Kogaku

Kamochi Masazumi

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pp. 139-156

[This is the title of one section of Chapter 3 of Man’yōshū kogi sōron, which is the introductory part of Kamochi’s seminal work, Man’yōshū kogi. This work was published in 1891, roughly thirty-three years after his death in 1858. Masazumi follows the tradition of Mabuchi, seeing poetry as more than just an emotional or scholary endeavor: ...

Part Two: Views on Literature

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Shika Shichiron

Ando Tameakira

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pp. 158-172

[This treatise is sometimes called Genji shichiron or Genji monogatari-kō, based on the fact that the essay is constructed around “seven treatises” concerning the Tale of Genji. Instead of being a commentary on parts of the tale, Tameakira wrote about seven issues that he felt impeded a proper understanding of the tale. ...

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Bun'iko

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 173-179

[This is a short essay where Mabuchi instructs the reader that while poetry is something that comes from within the individual, literature “bun” occurs from without. He discusses the state of ancient literature before the defilement of foreign cultures caused a change. He lists four different traits that ancient literature demonstrated: ...

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Isonokami Sasamegoto

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 180-211

[Written several years after Ashiwake obune, Isonokami sasamegoto further delineates Norinaga’s ideas about poetry and literature. In this essay he introduces his theory that mono no aware underpins poetry and literature, and the best literature is that which depicts the true state of human emotions. He criticizes scholars who see morality or ethics as the driving force in literature, ...

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Tama no Ogushi

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 212-242

[Norinaga extends his thesis about mono no aware and applies it directly to Genji monogatari. This work appears to be based on the lectures Norinaga had given through the years on the tale, something he began not long after he established his medical practice in Matsusaka. This translation focuses on the sections dealing specifically with mono no aware. ...

Part Three: Views on Scholarship

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"Petition to Establish a School"

Kada no Azumamaro

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pp. 244-249

[While few modern scholars believe this to be the actual work of Azumamaro, many do at least admit that it represents his basic thoughts. The petition was apparently written near the end of his life, as Azumamaro wanted a school from which to broaden his teachings. The petition, written in classical Chinese, quotes from a variety of Chinese sources, because literary Chinese was the official language ...

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Niimanabi

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 250-264

[Mabuchi sees the composition of poetry as a fundamental characteristic of Japan. He argues that studying the poetry of Man’yōshū helps the student learn that the ancient Japanese had a masculine character that was later weakened by continental influence. He outlines this decline, and proposes the solution to return to the state of the ancient past, which will remedy the situation. ...

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Niimanabi Iken

Kagawa Kageki

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pp. 265-277

[Kageki wrote a rebuttal to Mabuchi’s Niimanabi, writing his own iken “objections.” Much like Norinaga valued Shin Kokinshū over Man’yōshū, Kageki argues that Kokinshū and its display of sincerity was a better model for students to use than Man’yōshū, which Mabuchi had argued for. Kageki is aligned, however, with Mabuchi and Norinaga in arguing for an authentic emotion from the poet, ...

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Goiko

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 278-284

[Mabuchi divides this grammatically oriented essay into three sections: overview, verbal conjugations, and etymology. He compares Japanese to the languages of China and India and concludes that the language of Japan is superior, because it has as few as fifty sounds, compared to the complex languages of China and India; this demonstrates, he asserts, ...

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Ashi Kari Yoshi

Ueda Akinari, Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 285-308

[This Q and A essay is a record of correspondence between Ueda Akinari and Motoori Norinaga, as recorded by Norinaga. In letters to Norinaga, Akinari pushed back against what he considered to be rules and ideas about Japanese culture and language he did not believe. The topics of discussion range from the phonology of Old Japanese to Norinaga’s stance taken in his work Kenkyōjin (1785). ...

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Uiyamabumi

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 309-334

[According to Norinaga’s account, after he finished Kojiki-den, his students pressed him to write down advice for them to follow as they continued to learn about the Way. It is a rather short outline of things to do, and what texts to concentrate, with endnotes added to expound upon the twenty-eight main principles in the essay. I have included the notes in a reduced font. ...

Part Four: Views on Japan/Religion

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Kokuiko

Kamo no Mabuchi

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pp. 336-357

[Mabuchi wrote this essay based on what may have been an imaginary conversation with someone representing Confucian learning, though it is clear that he had Bendōsho, written by Dazai Shundai (1735), in mind, as his questions parallel those in the earlier work.2 Mabuchi appealed to what he thought Japanese culture ...

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Shinto Dokugo

Ise Sadatake

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pp. 358-384

[Using textual tools much like Norinaga, Sadatake takes a scalpel to what his generation called “Shintō” and determines that it is not a pure, ancient religion as some Shintō priests pretended. He categorizes Shintō into three groups: remnant Shintō, one based on the Book of Changes, and the amalgamated form. ...

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Kokugoko

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 385-399

[This is Norinaga’s exposition about the six recorded appellations of Japan, and the origin and meaning of each, demonstrating his breadth of knowledge and textual expertise. This type of work has rarely been attempted, and makes this essay worthy of note. He argues that the older term wa ...

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Naobi no Mitama

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 400-416

[This is actually a section in the beginning of Kojiki-den, but because it is essential in understanding Norinaga’s view of the Way, I have made it a separate piece. He argues that the Japanese received the Way directly from the kami, through their emperor, a descendant of Amaterasu. He notes that two other, man-made philosophies, Daoism and schools like Zhu Xi Confucianism, ...

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Kojiki-Den

Motoori Norinaga

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pp. 417-452

[One of the great achievements of the Kokugaku movement was Norinaga’s elucidation of Kojiki in Kojiki-den. A key element to strengthen the essential foundation for the complete evolution of Kokugaku from a nature-oriented, literary movement into one with an ideological purpose was the exposition of a concrete, Japanese Way. ...

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Sandaiko

Hattori Nakatsune

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pp. 453-461

[Nakatsune borrowed a draft of Norinaga’s Tenchizu “Diagram of Heaven and Earth” in 1788. Based on this simple diagram and explanation Nakatsune sketched out a draft of his own interpretation of this realm and other worldly realms, titled Tenchi shohatsu-kō “A Treatise on the Beginning of Heaven and Earth” (1789). ...

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Kodo Taii

Hirata Atsutane

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pp. 462-498

[This somewhat lengthy work written in colloquial Japanese is a record of lectures Atsutane gave his students. He discusses the characteristics of the ancient Way, and expounds upon how students may come to their own knowledge, mainly by studying Kojiki and other ancient texts. In this lecture he gives his version of the ancient mythology, ...

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Tama no Mihashira

Hirata Atsutane

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pp. 499-544

[Atsutane was greatly influenced by “Sandaikō,” found in Kojiki-den, and reuses those diagrams to tweak the theory of Norinaga and Nakatsune, thus creating his own theology. While he accepted the overall framework, he pushed back against the idea of Yomi as the afterlife as framed by Norinaga and Nakatsune. ...

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Tsuki no Sakaki

Suzuki Masayuki

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pp. 545-578

[It is unclear when this work was written, but it must have been finished by the end of 1867. The title is taken from the name the sun goddess used when she revealed herself to Jingū: “The emperor … prayed, ‘Which kami gave the great ruler instructions the other day?’ … After seven days and seven night a kami replied, ‘… My name is the lone-standing ...

Bibliography

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pp. 579-586

Index

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pp. 587-596

Further Series Titles

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