Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Figures

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book began as a seminar paper in an elective diplomatic history course taught by Warren Kimball and Lloyd Gardner at Rutgers University during my first semester in the doctoral program. There is no doubt it was the worst paper I wrote in my graduate career, but my fascination with the subject endured. I am beholden to Warren Kimball in particular for savaging my work, ...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-16

The story of Wernher von Braun and his rocket team’s harrowing escape from the collapsing Third Reich into the warm embrace of a former enemy is one of the more exciting and significant moments from the final days of World War II. As the Red Army approached the Peenemünde research complex on the Baltic coast, the SS (Schutzstaffel), ...

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1. ​Aristocracy of Evil: The Paperclippers and Nazi Science

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pp. 17-50

Walter Jessel, a German Jew who escaped Nazi Germany only to return as a US soldier assigned to Patton’s Third Army and eventually to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), had the distinction of interrogating German scientists and military officers during their first month of captivity.1 ...

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2. ​Implements of Progress: The Military’s Case for Paperclip

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pp. 51-85

In early 1945 intelligence and technical teams assigned to Anglo-American forces descended on the disintegrating Third Reich determined to locate and secure Germany’s “wonder weapons” before they wreaked more havoc. Separately, the US Alsos mission scrambled to uncover the extent to which the Nazis had progressed toward producing their own atomic bomb. ...

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3. ​Conscientious Objectors: The State Department and Opposition to Project Paperclip

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pp. 86-118

The exchange between Major Simpson of the JIOA and senior State Department official Herbert Cummings regarding the appointment of Samuel Klaus to the JIOA reveals the extraordinary personal animosity between the military’s strongest Paperclip advocates and wary civilian bureaucrats opposed to an unfettered exploitation program. ...

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4. ​Their Germans: German Scientists, the Soviet Union, and the US Intelligence Community

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pp. 119-149

The Soviet Union provided both the impetus and the justification for Project Paperclip and its successor programs during the Cold War. While the State Department and some intelligence officials warned against a Nazi revival in the Western hemisphere, specifically at the hands of military research scientists, ...

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5. ​Paperclip Vindicated: German Scientists and the Maturation of the National Security State

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pp. 150-183

The decade between the end of Paperclip’s acquisition phase in September 1947 and the launching of Sputnik in October 1957 seemingly vindicated the German scientists program. The contentious immigration issue and parade of embarrassing revelations related to Paperclip dissipated in the wake of increased Soviet aggressiveness in Europe, ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 184-192

The Soviet Union launched Sputnik on October 4, 1957. The national security state seemed both terrified and energized by what Senator Lyndon Johnson called a “disaster . . . comparable to Pearl Harbor.”1 The news broke the same day that the recently confirmed secretary of defense, Neil McElroy, ...

Notes

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pp. 193-228

Bibliography

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pp. 229-238

Index

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pp. 239-246