Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-x

List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 1-32

In December 1879 three young Native American women at the Seneca Indian School— Ida Johnson, Arizona Jackson, and Lula Walker— launched the first issue of their school newspaper, the Hallaquah.1 This was a rather extraordinary feat, considering these students were printers and editors at a time when such positions were limited for Native Americans and especially limited for young Native women. It is even more remarkable that in the inaugural...

Part 1 Writings by Boarding School Students

Letters

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Arizona Jackson (Wyandot)

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p. 37

Arizona Jackson, along with Ida Johnson and Lula Walker, founded, printed, and edited the Hallaquah at the Seneca Indian School. The inaugural issue of the monthly was published in December 1879. Johnson was the first editor; Jackson and Walker were associate editors. Jackson later became editor and remained on the staff while she attended Earlham College in Indiana in 1880. She then taught...

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Letter to Laura, 1880

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pp. 37-38

Dear Laura,

It has been so long since you were here, that I must write to inform you how much our school has improved.

During the week, we have school, Literary Society, Prayer meeting, Sabbath School, Mission Church and Gospel Temperance meeting.

Our school begins at half past eight in the morning and closes at four in the evening....

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Letter to the Editors, 1881

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pp. 38-39

Dear Editors of the Hallaquah:

I have for sometime past been wanting to write you, for the purpose of expressing my thanks for the honor conferred on me by allowing me to still hold my place on the Paper. I certainly...

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Letter to Susan Longstreth, 1881

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pp. 39-40

My Dear Friend S. Longstreth3— I have about 15 minutes in which to write this now, and will see how far I can go. For the last two weeks we have been very busy in examinations, which is I am glad to say over with. The result of mine was, in U.S. History, 90; English, History, & Algebra, 85; Physical Geography, 94; English Composition, 98; and Deportment, 98.4 It is only five weeks until...

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Samuel Townsend (Pawnee)

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p. 41

Samuel Townsend, who attended Carlisle from 1879 through the late 1880s, was often represented in print as an educated Indian for his participation in performances designed to raise funds for the school. For example, an 1887 New York Times article titled “Educated Indians. The Carlisle School’s Way of Solving the Indian Problem,” mentions the original speech on “Work a Civilizer” that Townsend...

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Letter by an Apprentice, 1880

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pp. 41-42

This is a very pleasant morning; the sun is shining very bright.

In this school there are many different tribes going to school. Some of these boys are learning to read and write very fast. And another thing they are learning they can make a speech in the chapel....

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Luther Standing Bear (Oglala Sioux)

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p. 43

Luther Standing Bear (1868– 1939), who originally bore the name Ota K’te, meaning “Plenty Kill,” was born in South Dakota. He was one of the first pupils to enter Carlisle in 1879. While there he learned the tinner’s trade. He left Carlisle in 1885 and lived at or near the Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations, working as clerk, teacher, rancher, and lay minister. He joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show...

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Letter on Baltimore, 1881

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pp. 43-44

Luther Standing Bear gives us something about his visit to Baltimore.9

I have something to say about Baltimore. I went there February 3rd. Great many people in Baltimore, because it is a big city. Now I will tell you what I did and saw. It is very beautiful in Baltimore,...

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Letter to Father, 1882

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pp. 44-46

Dear Father Standing Bear11:—

Day before yesterday one of the Sioux boys died.12 His name is Alvan. He was a good boy always. So we were very glad for him. Because he is better now than he was on Earth. I think you may be don’t know what I mean. I mean he has gone in...

Editorials

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Ida Johnson (Wyandot?), Arizona Jackson (Wyandot), and Lula Walker (Wyandot)

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p. 49

Ida Johnson edited the Halaquah Times, the publication of the literary society at the Seneca Indian School in the early 1870s. She was assisted by her associate Julia Robitaille (Wyandot). Only two undated handwritten issues are known to exist. Johnson was also the first “editress” of the Hallaquah. She attended Earlham College...

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Hallaquah Editorial, December 1879

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pp. 49-50

We desire and intend that the Hallaquah shall represent the spirit of our school, and always speak in behalf of its interest. Supported directly by the Hallaquah Society, it yet is intended to be a true exponent of the Seneca, Shawnee and Wyandotte Industrial Boarding School, and a news letter to the neighboring people as well as...

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Hallaquah Editorial, January 1880

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p. 50

We are very much encouraged by the interest manifested in our little paper, by our friends far and near. Our exchange list is headed by the Olathe Gazette; and we have read in other papers the kind words with which it has been received. So much encouraged are we that we are induced to publish another number, hoping it will meet...

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Hallaquah Editorial, February 1880

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pp. 50-51

With the Matrons’ help we have set up all the type for this issue and we now hope to be able before long to do all the work ourselves. News- paper making isn’t play, and then it is not at all pleasant after we have done the best we can and the type are all distributed to find someone who tells us, “Why didn’t you do this way, or that way it...

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Hallaquah Editorial, March–April 1880

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p. 51

Our little “STAR” is still shining in its corner as bright as ever though it was a little late making its appearance before the public this month. The reason it is so late is that two of the Editors were absent; also we were late getting moved into our new Office; and now we are moved a little further from the Matron we will have more of the work to...

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Hallaquah Editorial, May 1880

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p. 51

After this issue of the Hallaquah, there will be but one more number of this volume. We had thought that every number we had published, that the next one would be easier, but each time we find new difficulties to overcome and as two of the Editors are away...

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Lucy Grey (Seneca), Arizona Jackson (Wyandot), and Bertrand N. O. Walker (Wyandot)

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p. 52

The January 1881 issue of the Hallaquah announced two new members of the staff: Lucy Grey and Bertie Walker. Lucy Grey (ca. 1864– 1881) was born in Kansas, lived with her uncle’s family in Oklahoma, and was adopted by the Senecas. She entered the Seneca Indian School in March 1880....

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Hallaquah Editorial, January 1881

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pp. 52-53

In this issue we do not propose to offer any apologies, nor make any promises; and we do not want any statement of facts which we may make, regarded in the light of either. We are late again this month: everybody is, under similar circumstances. It’s the way to be, when you can’t help it. Any fears that may have been entertained by our...

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Hallaquah Editorial, February 1881

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p. 53

Much of the time that would have been employed in printing this No. of the paper, has been occupied in attending the meetings which have been held at the Mission during the past two weeks. We are glad to be able to offer our subscribers as good an excuse as this is,...

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Hallaquah Editorial, March 1881

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p. 53

We commenced setting up the type for this month’s paper, much sooner than we ever did before, and we expect to get it out in better time, and with less hurry, and trouble, than usual. We have had a much larger number of contributions to select from than...

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Hallaquah Editorial, April 1881

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pp. 53-54

While we were at home on a visit the last of March, some one very kindly cleaned up our office and rearranged all of the furniture: adding one entirely new large case of type and eight small ones, in a serviceable if not beautiful cabinet; veneer and varnish is all that is needed to make it elegant. And therefore for all of this we return...

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Hallaquah Editorial, May 1881

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pp. 53-54

Every attempt to write the few lines for this particular part of the paper seems more difficult than the last one, and we don’t know why; wonder if it is this way with every one who tries to write Editorials. We are thankful to the several friends who have sent us lists...

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Hallaquah Editorial, August, September, October, and November 1881

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p. 54

During the temporary suspension of our paper we have had considerable malarial sickness in the school, and November will long be remembered for its epidemic of pneumonia which prostrated 13 of our number and took from us our beloved colleague, schoolmate,...

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Samuel Townsend (Pawnee)

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p. 55

Samuel Townsend was the first editor of Carlisle’s School News, a monthly, which ran from June 1880 until May 1883. Charles Kihega (Iowa) took over as editor in 1881. Kihega was assisted by Ellis Buffington Childers, a member of the Creek Nation....

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School News Editorial, June 1880

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pp. 55-56

We know that this is a small paper. It is the smallest that we ever saw. We are going to try to make it good. We put every thing in this paper that the Indian boys write for us. Not any white man’s writing but all the Indian boys’ writing....

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School News Editorial, July 1880

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pp. 56-57

Some white folks say that the Indians do not know anything and can’t learn anything, but the Indians are learning something. Great many of the white folks never read about the Indians and they do not know anything about us, but sometimes they talk bad about us and they say that the Indians have no brains to think with and they...

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School News Editorial, August 1880

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pp. 57-58

It is better for the Indians to send all their children to school for if they don’t send their children to school they will not know anything. Now the Indians don’t know how to make wagons, plows, hoes, and harness; they don’t know how to make anything. They have to buy these things from the white people. That is the reason...

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School News Editorial, October 1880

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p. 58

Some Indians don’t want to be ignorant they want to know something. They want to know about the things that the white men do. Indians can’t learn anything without some wise people teaching them so the people of the United States must give the Indians more help and give them more education. They can’t do the things like...

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School News Editorial, December 1880

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p. 59

The children want to hurry to learn how to read and write, so they can read all the hard words in the books and they can read every book, and so they can write letters home to their parents. They try hard to learn all they can how to spell long words. That is the reason they try hard because they want to show their parents how they can...

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School News Editorial, January 1881

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pp. 59-60

Sometime the Indians will become entirely civilized people just as good white people. If the boys and girls want to be the rulers among their people they must get the best education and learn how to work too. We don’t think these children at this school or at any other school either will ever rule their parents and the old Indians only...

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School News Editorial, February 1881

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p. 60

The new President Mr. Garfield will take his place in Washington on the 4th of March and Mr. Hayes will go out because he has been President of the United States for four years. Mr. Hayes did the best he could to make the Indians civilized and he did the best he could to help the Indians, now we hope Mr. Garfield will put all the...

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Annie Lovejoy (Sioux), Addie Stevens (Winnebago), James Enouf (Potawatomi), and Frank Hubbard (Penobscot)

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p. 61

Annie Lovejoy was from the Flandreau Agency in South Dakota. She edited Talks and Thoughts from 1891 to 1892. After graduating in 1892, she enrolled in nursing school. Addie Stevens (born ca. 1873) entered Hampton in 1883. She left the school for a brief period and returned in 1888. She edited Talks and Thoughts for two...

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Our Motto Changed, Talks and Thoughts Editorial, January 1892

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p. 62

Dear Readers:— We wish to call your attention to the change of our motto, “Come over and help us,” in our little message courier, which heretofore has appeared in both English and Indian print.5

We decided to take this motto off, not that we are tired of it, but because we wish to print a new motto at each publication of...

Essays

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Henry Caruthers Roman Nose (Southern Cheyenne)

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p. 65

Henry Caruthers Roman Nose (ca. 1850– 1917) was one of the Fort Marion prisoners Richard Henry Pratt brought with him to Hampton in 1878 and then to Carlisle when it opened in 1879. Roman Nose, who renamed himself Henry after Pratt, stayed at Carlisle for two years to learn the tinning trade. Roman Nose’s writings appeared...

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An Indian Boy’s Camp Life, 1880

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pp. 65-66

When I was ten years old in Indian Territory, I commenced to kill buffalo calves, shooting them with bow and arrows, and then when I grew up about fourteen years old, I had killed big buffalo good many.

One day that time I killed about seven buffaloes.

At my old home in Indian Territory I would go out and search for birds, and when I had found them I shot them with bows and...

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Roman Nose Goes to New York, 1880

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pp. 66-67

I had a pleasant visit to New York. I was very much delighted to see my friends in New York and Tarrytown. The people, they were very glad to see me also. I stayed there about ten days. I had a very jolly time. In three days I traveled very much in New York and I saw a great many beautiful things, the houses and everything. New York is a very good city, very handsome. I like it very much. Oh I...

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Roman Nose Goes to Indian Territory, 1880

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pp. 67-68

August 2nd I went out west to the Indian Territory. First I arrived at Harrisburg and I found cars for Pittsburgh and I got there in the night about twelve o’clock. I changed cars again and went to Indianapolis. I arrived at Indianapolis in the morning about twelve o’clock and stopped there a few minutes. Then they went to St. Louis. The cars go very fast. I arrived at St. Louis in the night about nine o’clock and changed cars again. I got out there and I looked for the cars...

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Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose, 1880

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pp. 69-70

I will now endeavor to tell you of my experiences and travels from the time I was taken to Florida up to the present day.

It is very warm weather at the South, in wintertime it is not very cold and they have no snowing there. I often judge by Florida and St. Augustine, because I had commenced to find good friends there, all the white people in St. Augustine. When we stayed there, some time they told us they were very sorry and felt our hearts sadness....

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Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose, on Captain Pratt, 1881

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pp. 70-71

Capt. Pratt supported all the Florida boys in St. Augustine and he procured for the Indians everything. All the Indians were very glad and we like Capt. Pratt very much because he is a great good man and his heart is weight. They had a meeting in Ft. Marion every Monday evening to pray to God to guide us in the right way. We had very pleasant time the 4th of July in St. Augustine also in the...

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Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose,on Going to Hampton, 1881

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pp. 71-72

He didn’t reply to my letter and I did not hear from him but he went out west and when [he] came back to Washington then he obtained my letter and he replied immediately and said in his letter, he wanted me and the other boys to go to Hampton School but I didn’t like to go to Hampton I wanted to stayed at Tarrytown, New York. I started to Hampton and we arrived at New York City a.m. and saw...

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Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose,on Getting an Education, 1881

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pp. 72-73

We then took another steamer for New York where we arrived safely. Capt. Romayn went with the boys to Norfolk and when we got out there he said to the boys, Capt. Pratt will meet you in New York. After we shook hands and bid him goodbye, he said, boys I hope all of you will have a good time where you are journeying. Then he returned to Hampton Normal Institute. In the night at about nine...

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Mary North (Arapaho)

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p. 74

Mary North, a member of the Arapaho Nation, attended Carlisle from 1879 to 1884. After leaving Carlisle she worked briefly in the Indian Service in Genoa, Nebraska. In 1910 she was a housekeeper in Kingfisher, Oklahoma, and in 1913 she was an assistant matron at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe School in Darlington, Oklahoma....

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A Little Story, 1880

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p. 74

We all have good times and we went out to the Camp meeting and heard the people talk about God, and we sang two or three hymns and the people it was very much glad to hear us sing. When we were at home in Indian Territory we had nothing to do but play and go to the river and go in swimming and now we are way off from home...

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Joseph Du Bray (Yankton Sioux)

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p. 75

Joseph Du Bray (born ca. 1872) entered Hampton in 1890 when he was approximately eighteen years old. The editorial note opening his essay suggests his classmates and school authorities considered him to be a model student. During his five years at Hampton, Du Bray was a frequent contributor to Talks and Thoughts. He also served a brief stint as an editor in 1892. After graduating from Hampton in...

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Indians’ Accustoms, 1891

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pp. 75-76

Before the Indians become civilized they used to have foolish accustoms. I will tell you a few of them. When a man some place in a family he has no right to call his father- in law’s name. If he does call his father- in- law’s name or his mother- in- law’s name, he will get his ears pulled. A man or a woman has no right to call his son-in-law’s name. For instance if Gen. Armstrong is your father-in-law,...

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How to Walk Straight, 1892

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pp. 76-77

I heard an interesting story the other day. It was about crabs. There was once a council of crabs met together in a certain place and talked about this subject: How shall we make our children walk straight? They said that they are too old to learn how. So all the old crabs went home ready to tell their children how to walk straight.

One day one of the crabs tried to teach his child. He told the young crab how he must put one foot just in front of the other and...

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The Sun Dance, 1893

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pp. 77-78

I am going to explain or tell you what [the] Sun Dance is. I was asked good many times by my northern friends while I was up there. Sun Dance is a kind of religious festival among the Indians of old times.

They meet together in a special place which is appointed by the greatest men of that time. This festival is held once a year. It comes on summer time when all the plants and flowers spread out their...

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Robert Placidus Higheagle (Standing Rock Sioux)

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p. 79

Robert Placidus Higheagle (born ca. 1873), whose Indian name was Kahektakiya, entered Hampton in the early 1890s and was editor of Talks and Thoughts from 1893 to 1894. After graduating from Hampton, he became a teacher at Lower Brule and then returned to Standing Rock Reservation, where he taught school. During this time, Higheagle also assisted Frances Densmore, an expert in tribal...

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Tipi-iyokihe, 1895

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pp. 79-80

In the olden times, when the Indians used to live together in their villages of white tents, which sometimes extended for five or six miles, there prevailed certain customs that were very much like those of civilized nations. Among these there existed one among the Sioux tribe called Tipi-iyokihe.

The village was built up in a circular form. In the center of the circle no animals were allowed, only people. Sometimes some rich...

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Samuel Baskin (Santee Sioux)

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p. 81

Samuel Baskin (born 1870) was from Santee, Nebraska, and entered Hampton in 1890 at the age of twenty. After graduating in 1895, he attended Kimball Academy at Meriden, New Hampshire. He later worked as a mechanic at the Santee Normal Training School in Nebraska. (Littlefield and Parins, Biobibliography: Supplement,...

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What the White Man Has Gained from the Indian, 1896

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pp. 81-82

We all know that what has brought us to be what we are and where we are, is the spirit of American civilization, and it is constantly blotting out our Indian manner of living and in place of it, has given us American rights, homes, citizenship. So we come together this afternoon to show our appreciation to our friends and to our God. But we must also look back to our old time Indians and thank them too for what...

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Alonzo Lee (Eastern Band Cherokee)

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p. 83

Alonzo Lee entered Hampton in 1894 and left without graduating in 1900. He published several essays on the Cherokees in Talks and Thoughts and was editor from 1896 to 1897. (Littlefield and Parins, American Indian, 358; Littlefield and Parins, Biobibliography:...

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The Trail of the Serpent, 1896

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pp. 83-84

When I came to Hampton in September 1893, the Government still near our reservation was just being built.17 This still is the greatest downfall on the Cherokees that ever occurred in our part of the country. As we all know, the red man has a great appetite for strong drink and when he is tempted will generally take it unless trained to withstand the temptation....

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Indian Folk-Lore, 1896

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pp. 84-85

In Georgia there is a swamp that has a large quicksand in it. The red men who remained in Georgia in the beginning of this century declared that the swamp was holy ground, that in the vast morass were islands inhabited by a peculiar race of Indians who did no evil and who were ruled by beautiful winged women. This was the land...

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An Indian Naturalist, 1897

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pp. 85-87

A good many Cherokees live in the northeastern part of Tennessee and once I visited a friend there for two weeks.

One bright sunny day my friend said,

“Come, I am going to take you to a show.”

“Is it far?” I asked as we started out.

“The first house up the road about five miles,” replied my friend....

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Transition Scenes, 1899

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pp. 87-89

From the earliest history of this country the Cherokee Indian has inhabited the South Atlantic States. In 1836 the white people decided that they must have this land, and the Government sent General Scott to convey the whole Cherokee nation west of the Mississippi River. About two thousand of these Indians refused to leave their homes but they were forced to go. Before many days they succeeded...

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Anna Bender (White Earth Chippewa)

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p. 90

Anna Bender (1885– 1911), a Chippewa Indian from the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota, attended Lincoln Institute in Philadelphia and Pipestone Indian School in Minnesota before entering Hampton Institute’s Indian Program in 1902, when she was seventeen years old. As a student Anna, or Annie as she was known at Hampton, showed a lot of promise, according to a report from the...

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A Glimpse of the Old Indian Religion, 1904

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pp. 90-92

The religious idea has always been strong in the Indian, and he believed that there was a God, sometimes called the Great Spirit, who ruled all nature and himself.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Jesuit priests and Puritans both testified that the tribes which they met believed in a god and many uncivilized tribes of the present day believe in a Supreme Being who is ruler of the universe. They have different ideas...

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An Indian Girl in Boston, 1904

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pp. 92-94

This fall I visited friends who live in Boston. They were very proud of their city and wished my sister and me to see all the places of interest. We went into the new State House which has a gilded dome and saw the flags that had been through the different wars. There were also paintings around the walls near the ceiling. One of them especially took my fancy. It was that of John Eliot preaching to the...

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Elizabeth Bender (White Earth Chippewa)

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pp. 95-96

Elizabeth Bender (1888– 1965), a Chippewa Indian from the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota, entered Hampton Institute’s Indian Program in 1903. Like her sister Anna, Elizabeth published nonfiction essays in Talks and Thoughts. In the essay that follows, Elizabeth describes a trip she took with Anna “From Hampton to New York.” As Elizabeth explains in her essay, she and Anna were not simply on a sightseeing trip. They were “chosen” to go north to...

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From Hampton to New York, 1905

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pp. 96-97

Early in January my sister and I had an opportunity to go north to speak and sing at some of the parlor meetings that were held in Philadelphia and New York for the benefit of Hampton.

We left Old Point Comfort one evening and reached Baltimore the next morning. As we were being transferred from one depot to another we had a good view of the burned district and the many...

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J. William Ettawageshik (Ottawa)

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p. 98

J. William Ettawageshik (ca. 1889– 1942) was one of several male printers at Carlisle. After graduating from Carlisle in 1911 he became assistant editor of the Outlook in Onaway, Michigan, as reported in the February 1913 issue of the Red Man. In 1914 he worked as a printer for the Enterprise in St. Ignace, also in Michigan. (Red Man, February 1913, 265; Littlefield and Parins, American Indian, 320;...

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My Home Locality, 1909

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pp. 98-100

Harbor Springs, in the northern part of the lower peninsula of Michigan, in a county called Emmet, is my hometown. It has a population of about nineteen hundred people. It is a delightful place, both in summer and in winter. It is well up- to- date. The name comes from the “harbor” which is nearby and “springs” from the many beautiful springs which are near the place. Putting harbor and springs...

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Caleb Carter (Nez Percé)

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p. 101

Caleb Carter (born 1888), whose Indian name was Ip- nau- sau- laukaskt, attended Haskell Institute for three years before entering Carlisle in 1909. His student file indicates that he did not attend Carlisle continuously. After graduating in 1912 he moved to Kansas to become a farmer. (Carlisle Indian School Digital Resource...

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Christmas among the Nez Percés, 1911

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pp. 101-104

Come with me to spend Christmas with that famous Indian tribe which led Generals Miles and Howard a merry chase through the Rockies not so many years ago, covering a distance of over thirteen hundred miles, regardless of the numbers pitted against them.

We will find that the Nez Percé Reservation is in the northern part of Idaho on the Clearwater River, a tributary of the Columbia...

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How the Nez Percés Trained for Long Distance Running, 1911

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pp. 104-106

Strange and improbable as this description seems, it is every word of it true, as the writer is of the tribe mentioned in the title of his paper and has always been familiar with the customs about to be described.

The men of the tribe who were set apart by their physical qualifications to train for runners, used to commence their training in...

Short Stories and Retold Tales

Joseph Du Bray (Yankton Sioux)

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p. 109

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A Fox and a Wolf: A Fable, 1892

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pp. 109-110

There was once upon a time a wolf and a fox were travelling through a civilized country. The wolf was very proud and talked as though he was the only one that knew everything on this universe. He even told the fox that he could speak all kinds of languages.

The fox was very polite and gentle to him, but not in his heart; then the wolf put his confidence in him without delay. Thus they...

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Harry Hand (Crow Creek Sioux)

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p. 111

Harry Hand entered Hampton in 1889 at eighteen, after spending six years at the Crow Creek Agency School, and was a regular contributor to Talks and Thoughts. He wrote stories about war and hunting that were passed down from elders, including “The Brave War- Chief and the Ghost” and “A Buffalo Hunt,” both reprinted here. He also wrote about trickster figures like the spider in “The...

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The Brave War-Chief and the Ghost, 1892

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pp. 111-113

I don’t know whether this story is true or not, but some Indians say it is a true story.

Well, many years ago, when there were no white people in the west, the tribes of Indians used to make war against each other. At one time, a chief picked out nearly all the young men of an Indian village and said he wanted to go to war with the Crow Indians. These Indians that wanted to go to war were Sioux Indians. Well,...

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A Buffalo Hunt, 1892

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pp. 113-114

Once upon a time two Indian families went out to hunt. At the end of two days’ journey from their village, they camped at a place where [there] was plenty of grass for their ponies and plenty of water. These two men were brothers. Their grandfather, the old war chief, was a medicine man too, and when they camped he put up his medicine flag and hung his drum and things on the staff so that his sons would...

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The Story Teller, 1893

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pp. 114-115

The picture here presented is from a sketch by one of our students, Harry Hand. The picture shows something that is very often seen among Indian homes.

In the evening, after supper, the men would get together, bring their pipes with their long stems and kinnikinick bags, sit in a...

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The Adventures of a Strange Family, 1893

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pp. 115-117

Once upon a time there was a man living with his five sons in a place by themselves. One of the sons was a rock, one a buffalo, one a bear, one an owl, and the fifth one, an eagle.

One day they wanted to select places to live in. They determined to scatter themselves so each one could select the place that he wanted....

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Chapman Schanandoah (Oneida)

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p. 118

Chapman Schanandoah (born 1870) attended Hampton in 1888 and left a year later. He reentered the school in 1892 and stayed for two years. He enlisted in the U.S. Navy in 1897, and in 1904 he served aboard the uss Raleigh. After leaving the navy in 1912 he moved to Buffalo. (Littlefield and Parins, Biobibliography: Supplement, 282)....

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How the Bear Lost His Tail: An Old Indian Story, 1893

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pp. 118-119

It may seem rather strange, come to inquire about this story among the different tribes of Indians. We seem to know it so alike, even if we do speak different languages. This story must have happened when we spoke the same language.

As we know such as prairie dogs, rattlesnakes, and owls live together and don’t quarrel; so some of the animals first lived together...

Robert Placidus Higheagle (Standing Rock Sioux)

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p. 120

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The Brave Deaf and Dumb Boy, 1893

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pp. 120-122

An Indian named Step made a feast and invited good many Indians, as he wished to tell them about this dangerous escape in a war long time ago. His first statement was that he would have been dead long ago if he had lived in a savage state as he did many years ago. He then began to tell them the following story. He stated that a long time ago some men and himself went to war with a deaf and dumb...

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The Legend of Owl River, 1895

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pp. 122-123

“In the land of the Dakotas,” there is a certain river known as the Owl River, from the fact that a famous event had happened there concerning the above named bird.

It was customary among the Indians of old to do anything in their power to bring up their children as brave as themselves. One of the common punishments inflicted to remedy cowardice was...

Samuel Baskin (Santee Sioux)

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p. 124

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Ite Waste, or Fair Face, 1895

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pp. 124-126

Ite Waste was the name of a young Indian woman. Among the different tribes of Indians, she was considered as the prettiest woman that ever walked the earth. Many Indians had lost their lives and many had failed trying to get her. But one succeeded in getting her. His name was Swift Star. He had seen the woman and had promised...

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Stella Vanessa Bear (Arikara)

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p. 127

Stella Vanessa Bear (born ca. 1883) grew up on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota and attended Hampton before entering Carlisle in 1903. In Hampton’s Talks and Thoughts and Carlisle’s Arrow, Indian Craftsman, and Red Man, she published several stories and retold tales based on Arikara legends. After graduating from Hampton in 1910 she became field matron at the Cheyenne and...

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An Indian Story, 1903

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pp. 127-128

After having wandered over the lonely prairies all day in search of buffalo, some Indians came one night to a beautiful valley. Tired as they were they immediately began to pull the tent poles and other articles from the horses’ backs and at once the women began putting up the tipis while the men went to water and picket the horses for the night. Supper was being prepared in the open air near the...

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How People First Came to the World, 1903

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pp. 128-130

My people believe that we first lived beneath the earth in darkness and never knew that there was another world until a small ground mole dug its way up to the surface of the earth. When the ground mole looked out he saw the green land, its trees and the waters, and he immediately crept back down into the earth finding his way as...

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An Enemy’s Revenge, 1905

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pp. 130-131

This is one of the tales that my grandmother used to tell us children in the long winter evenings around the fire.

One beautiful evening a party of Indian maids were playing near the edge of the woods, when suddenly a peculiar looking man sprang out and giving one loud whoop ran up to the girls and said in angry tones, “Many years ago, your people and my people had a fight,...

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Ghost Bride Pawnee Legend, 1910

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pp. 132-133

The Pawnees were all ready to leave the village for a hunt, when a young woman suddenly died, so they had to get her ready for burial. She was dressed in her finest clothes and buried. A party of young men had been off on a visit and were on their way home. They knew nothing of the departure of the tribe and the death of the girl. As they traveled on they met the tribe and all joined them...

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Indian Legend— Creation of the World, 1910

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p. 133

There are many legends told of how this world was created and this is the story told by my tribe. We all once inhabited a region under the ground and lived in total darkness. One day the ground mole made his way up to the surface and discovered a new world. When he came in contact with the light he went blind and he returned to the people and told them what he had found, so the people got to...

Anna Bender (White Earth Chippewa)

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p. 134

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Quital’s First Hunt, 1904

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p. 134

In a little Ojibway camp near a beautiful little stream there lived a poor old woman with her grandson, whose name was Quital.

One day the boy’s companions were going out to hunt buffaloes, but he could not go because he had only one poor pony while all his friends had a number of fine ones.

He felt very lonely and was almost ready to cry. His grandmother noticed this and was very sorry for him. She called him to her and...

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The First Squirrel, 1904

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pp. 135-137

Once there was a chief who was very sick and many thought he would die. The doctors and medicine men had done all in their power to restore him to health, but to no avail.

One day during this sad time an old man all dressed in red came into the camp, and went directly to the tent of the chief. He looked tired and hungry, but instead of receiving him hospitably and giving him a place to rest, as is the custom with all Indians, the chief ’s wife...

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The Big Dipper, 1904

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pp. 137-140

There was once a chief who had two daughters, the younger one of which he liked the best. One day they went out under the trees to work with porcupine quills. These were hanging on a tree. The older sister reached up for them, but the quills rose up out of her reach. She climbed the tree but still the quills went higher and higher, so presently she got tired and came down....

William J. Owl (Eastern Band Cherokee)

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p. 141

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The Beautiful Bird, 1910

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pp. 141-142

The beautiful bird was in existence many, many moons ago, and at that time, the Cherokees claim he was the most beautiful of the fowls of the air, and that he was also the ruler of all the birds. He was adored for his good looks and praised for his courage.

The time came, however, when he began to exaggerate his authority in everything. At all feasts he was the first to be served, and no...

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The Way the Opossum Derived His Name, 1912

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pp. 142-146

Many, many winters ago, before the great snow, as the Indians termed the glacial period, the opossum derived his name from the tricks he played on the other animals.

He is a crafty looking little animal with a long tail, with which he can hang or suspend himself from a limb by winding it about the limb. He can climb trees and cling to the branches and the strongest...

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Emma La Vatta (Fort Hall Shoshoni)

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p. 147

Emma La Vatta (born ca. 1890) entered Carlisle in 1905 and graduated in 1911. After graduating she returned to Idaho, where in 1912 she sought a position as matron in the Indian School Service. (Littlefield and Parins, Biobibliography: Supplement, 242; Carlisle...

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The Story of the Deerskin, 1910

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pp. 147-148

Once upon a time a family of deer lived near a large river. The family was of the buck, doe, and three fawns. Whenever the doe went in search of food she always left the fawns at home and told them not to let any one in, no matter who came, because not very far from them, across the river, lived an old bear who might devour the young fawns. As the mother had said, the bear came and tried to get in,...

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Why the Snake’s Head Became Flat, 1911

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p. 148

Once upon a time there were two little boys who lived out on the western plains. Their names were Bow and Arrow. They were nearly the same size and enjoyed similar games and sports. They lived most of the time in the mountains where the game was plentiful and the streams full of trout. They naturally became skillful hunters and fishers. While they were away from home they depended upon whatever they could find, such as berries and roots, for food. The...

J. William Ettawageshik (Ottawa)

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p. 149

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The Maple Sugar Sand, 1911

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pp. 149-150

It is more than a century ago since the territory about the Great Lakes was settled by the white people. Some times the Indians and the whites were on friendly terms and at other times they had trouble.

One day a white boy who lived some distance from an Indian village came to the camp of the Indians where he was kept as a prisoner. This was at a time when the Indians and whites were having trouble....

Caleb Carter (Nez Percé)

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p. 151

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The Coyote and the Wind, 1913

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p. 151

The coyote, once upon a time, made himself a dwelling place out of tall bunch grass. It was in late fall, and the wind would always blow it apart. This made the coyote very angry, so one day he devised a snare in which to trap the offender. As he was fixing up the snare he thought to himself, “I will fix him!”
The next morning he set out to see if he had caught the wind. Upon arriving he beheld a man with big ears and of great stature....

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The Feast of the Animals, 1913

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pp. 151-154

Having been brought up by my grandmother, whom I always regarded as my mother until I attained the age of nine or ten years, I used to listen with great interest to some of the legends she related to me. Here is one which tells how some of the wild animals received their present forms and characteristics:

Long before the human race came to dwell upon this world, there existed a race of beings now known as bears, wolves, etc. They all...

Part 2

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Francis La Flesche (Omaha)

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p. 157

Francis La Flesche (1857– 1932) was born on the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska. He attended the Presbyterian Mission School on the Omaha Reservation from 1865 until 1869. In the late 1870s he acted as interpreter and informant for ethnologist James Owen Dorsey. He also interpreted for Alice C. Fletcher, who studied the Omaha tribe and with whom he collaborated to collect Omaha and Sioux...

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Address to Carlisle Students, 1886

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pp. 157-161

The Indian problem, as it is generally called, can never be fully solved by the white people. Its solution rests mainly with the Indians themselves. The law that governs individuals is applicable to nations. Man’s salvation is an individual responsibility for which he alone is answerable, and the salvation of a nation depends on its own life struggles and not upon outside influences, however strong they may be....

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The Laughing Bird, the Wren: An Indian Legend, 1900

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pp. 161-165

Ja- bae- ka came in with a big armful of wood, threw it down with a crash, stamped his feet and gave his blanket a few vigorous flaps to shake off the snow. The squint eyed little chap was always willing to go after water, or wood or to run on any other errand; and when a thing of that kind was to be done, the dozen boys, who were chums and went together, always looked to him first...

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The Past Life of the Plains Indians, 1905

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pp. 165-175

There were two lines of industry by which the tribes of the plains secured their living before the coming of the white people among them. One was by cultivating maize, beans, and squash, and the other was by hunting.

The task of preparing the soil and the planting of the seeds fell to the women, for in those days there was continual warfare between...

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One Touch of Nature, 1913

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pp. 175-177

The hunting of black bear was a sport much loved by the Osage Indians in the days before the coming of the white settlers into the country west of the Mississippi. It afforded them not only the thrill and excitement of the chase, of which every hunter is fond, but it also added largely to the animal food supply upon which the Indians depended for their living....

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Carlos Montezuma (Yavapai)

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p. 178

Carlos Montezuma, or Wassaja (Signaling, ca. 1866– 1923), was born in Arizona. As a young child, he was captured by the Pimas and sold to a photographer. He attended public schools in Chicago and New York and earned a degree in medicine from the Chicago Medical College in 1889. He worked as agency physician in the Indian Service; from 1894 to 1896 he served as resident physician at...

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An Apache, to the Students of Carlisle Indian School, 1887

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pp. 178-180

I have been thinking what would be best to write that might be a help and encouragement to you in your studies this year.1 I have concluded to relate to you briefly my early schooling and graduation to the degree of Bachelor of Science.

Now, imagine a small Apache boy in the wilds of Arizona, just as happy as a bird, free from every thought of danger....

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The Indian Problem from an Indian’s Standpoint, 1898

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pp. 180-188

The reports of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs, Indian Agents, school officials, and the missionaries usually create the impression that the Indians are all improving.

An anxious friend of a patient inquired of the doctor as he passed from his morning call:...

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Civilized Arrow Shots from an Apache Indian, 1902

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pp. 188-191

Away with indians! they cannot be civilized!

So says the frontiersman.

My words are not for this man.

He does not justify all there is in civilization.

The Indian is human; if cheated, wronged and misused, he will justly resent it, the same as the white man....

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The Indian Dance, 1902

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pp. 191-194

Thirty years ago among the primitive Indians, I participated in Indian dances.

Taken captive by another tribe then, it fell to my lot to be an object for a dance.

Twenty years later as Government physician I witnessed many dances in as many tribes, from the East to the West...

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Flash Lights on the Indian Question, 1902

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pp. 194-198

History seems to convey that America and the Indian were lost and Columbus discovered them. Since then the Indian has met so many “entreating friends,” that much like the poor gold- brick farmer, he is bewildered and at a loss to know what to do. Thus comes the Indian Question.

The Indian Question is a question because we have sidetracked the Indian from the main road to freedom, manhood, and...

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How America Has Betrayed the Indian, 1903

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pp. 198-200

On this most interesting occasion in Chicago’s remarkable history it is well to pause and consider the great question of the true brotherhood of man.

The Indians have attracted a great deal of attention. I hope it has been a right education for the public, but I fear you went there to see the feathers...

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Charles Alexander Eastman (Santee Sioux)

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pp. 201-202

Charles Alexander Eastman, or Ohiyesa (The Winner, 1858– 1939), was born near Redwood Falls, Minnesota. His father was Sioux, and his mother, the daughter of a well- known army officer and granddaughter of Chief Cloud Man of the Sioux, died shortly after his birth. Eastman lived on the Santee Sioux (Dakota) reservation in Minnesota until, at the age of four, he fled with his grandmother...

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An Indian Collegian’s Speech, 1888

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pp. 202-204

I will speak of my father, rather than myself, for he has been of more importance to my race, and is to me the model of a strong and good character. He was once a warrior, who painted his face and scalped his enemies; but after the great Sioux war of twenty years ago, he was imprisoned for four years in Davenport, Iowa; and there he embraced Christianity, through the influence of the missionaries,...

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Address at Carlisle Commencement, 1899

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pp. 204-206

It seems to be characteristic of the white people, at least those on the frontier, that when one of them is cornered and at a disadvantage he is apt to use profuse profane language; and it is also characteristic of the old Indian warrior when one is forced to a corner and taken advantage of he will probably give a war whoop. But, as I am not given to either of these characteristics, I have to suppress my...

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The Making of a Prophet, 1899

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pp. 206-213

“Ogalallas, pray to the Great Mystery! An Evil Spirit is enveloped in yonder cloud.” The speaker was a “Medicine Man” of savage repute, and the cloud to which he pointed was at the least an unusual sight. It had all the appearance of a cyclone, and it was swiftly approaching their encampment.

The warning was quickly heard, and the Ogalalla camp became a scene of turmoil. The people ran hither and thither, scarcely knowing...

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Notes of a Trip to the Southwest, 1900

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pp. 213-215

You ask me how I like Arizona. I say it is too hot and dry. As the old Pima chief, Antonio says, nothing will grow there unless it is heat- proof. It was ninety degrees above on March 31st, and kept it up during the three days I was in the Sacaton region. I can’t say that I like Arizona for her climate, her giant cactus, Gila monsters and centipedes. Yet nearly all the white people I met were there for their...

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An Indian Festival, 1900

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pp. 215-219

It was mid-summer— the Indians’ festival time, when the medicine men fulfilled their promise of the year before to make a “sun- dance,” a “fox- dance,” or any other kind of dance that has an intertribal significance. The Ogallalas, the Brules, the Hunkpapahs and the Minne- conwojus were encamped together. It was an imposing village of white teepees that had sprung up in one afternoon upon one...

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A True Story with Several Morals, 1900

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p. 220

Not many weeks ago some of the Oklahoma Poncas went to South Dakota to visit their friends and relatives at Niobrara. Of course everybody was delighted. All the stories of old days were told in turn and the pipe of peace and the pipe apiece were filled and refilled.

But there came a time when the stories and provisions were exhausted and the young men strayed off to a neighboring town, in...

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Indian Traits, 1903

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pp. 220-224

It is natural that the subject of the Indian should be of the deepest interest to me. It is natural for me to cling to the early training that I received— training that was instilled into the very fibre of my being— training that this civilization of steam, machinery, and electricity cannot wipe out. There is a cry that sometimes comes to my soul: “O let me go back to my childhood and primitive man...

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The Indian’s View of the Indian in Literature, 1903

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pp. 225-230

The Indians in general are not readers. Of the great mass of that which has been written about them, they know little or nothing. Here and there a book or a magazine article falls into the hands of one who can read and is translated to the old people, bringing a smile of contempt upon their faces. The pictures drawn therein are altogether foreign to their real life and mode of thought. Nor...

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Life and Handicrafts of the Northern Ojibwas, 1911

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pp. 230-234

Among the forest Indians of the Northwest they are still some few who maintain themselves in the old- fashioned way, living in birchbark houses during most of the year. Their home is the lake regions of northern Minnesota and the Province of Ontario. This country is so interlaced with watery highways that the primitive [bark] canoe is the main carrier. The horse is scarcely used, but in winter the...

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“My People”: The Indians’ Contribution to the Art of America, 1914

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pp. 234-242

In his sense of the aesthetic, which is closely akin to religious feeling, the American Indian stands alone. In accord with his nature and beliefs, he does not pretend to imitate the inimitable, or to reproduce exactly the work of the Great Artist. That which is beautiful must not be trafficked with, but must be reverenced and adored only. It must appear in speech and action....

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Angel De Cora (Winnebago)

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pp. 243-244

Angel De Cora (1871– 1919) was born on the Winnebago reservation in Nebraska. She attended a reservation school for four years before entering Hampton in 1883. She stayed at Hampton for five years, returned to Nebraska for a brief period, and then went back to Hampton. She was editor of Talks and Thoughts from 1890 to 1891. After graduating from Hampton in 1891, she briefly attended...

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My People, 1897

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pp. 244-246

A great many have heard of Winnebago Indians, but very few have taken the trouble to study the character of the tribe. Many have passed through the reservation and their remarks are anything but flattering. The Winnebagoes were moved to their present home in the northeastern part of Nebraska in 1863 during the Sioux trouble. Since then very little has been done towards the civilization of the tribe,— that is, civilization in its truest meaning. Most of the Indians...

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Native Indian Art, 1907

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pp. 246-249

The time has not been long enough since the subject was put into practice to show some of the possibilities of adapting Indian art to modern usages.2

Indians, like any other race in its primitive state, are gifted in original ideas of ornamentation. The pictorial talent is common to...

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An Autobiography, 1911

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pp. 249-251

I was born in a wigwam, of Indian parents. My father was the fourth son of the hereditary chief of the Winnebagoes. My mother, in her childhood, had had a little training in a convent, but when she married my father she gave up all her foreign training and made a good, industrious Indian wife.

During the summers we lived on the reservation, my mother cultivating her garden and my father playing the chief ’s son. During...

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Gertrude Bonnin (Yankton Sioux)

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pp. 252-254

Gertrude Bonnin, or Zitkala- Ša (Red Bird, 1876– 1938), was born at the Yankton Sioux Agency in South Dakota, where she lived with her mother and attended a bilingual agency school for two years before enrolling in White’s Manual Institute, a Quaker- run boarding school in Wabash, Indiana. After graduating from White’s Manual Institute she attended Earlham College from 1895 to 1897. While at Earlham she published poems and essays in the school paper, the...

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School Days of an Indian Girl, 1900

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pp. 254-257

The first day in the land of apples was a bitter cold one; for the snow still covered the ground, and the trees were bare. A large bell rang for breakfast, its loud metallic voice crashing through the belfry overhead and into our sensitive ears. The annoying clatter of shoes on bare floors gave us no peace. The constant clash of harsh noises, with an unknown tongue, made a bedlam within which I was securely tied. And though my spirit tore itself in struggling for its lost...

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Letter to the Red Man, 1900

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p. 258

Zitkala- Ša writes us the following in explanation of her articles in the Atlantic Monthly:

I give outright the varying moods of my own evolution; those growing pains which knew not reason while active. To stir up views and earnest comparison of theories was one of the ways in which I hoped...

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A Protest Against the Abolition of the Indian Dance, 1902

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pp. 258-263

Almost within a stone’s throw from where I sit lies the great frozen Missouri. Like other reptiles, the low murmuring brown river sleeps through the winter season underneath its covering of blue sheening ice.

A man carrying a pail in one hand and an axe in the other, trudges along a narrow footpath leading to the river. Close beside the frozen stream he stands a moment motionless as if deliberating within...

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Laura Cornelius Kellogg (Oneida)

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p. 264

Laura Cornelius Kellogg (1880– ca. 1949) was born on the Oneida Indian Reservation in Wisconsin. Unlike many of her contemporaries, she did not attend federal boarding schools but rather studied at Grafton Hall, a private school for girls in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, where she graduated with honors in 1898. Kellogg taught at the Sherman Institute in Riverside, California, between 1902 and 1904 before resigning to study law at Stanford University. Kellogg left...

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Indian Public Opinion, 1902

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pp. 264-265

The last few issues of Carlisle’s publications have so aroused my interest that I cannot refrain from humbly participating in an “Indian Council.” Not that the pages of the little paper have been filled, lately, with literature superior than formerly, but the part in it I like better is INDIANS’ public opinion.

I feel like living when I hear educated Indians advancing wellbalanced ideas. It looks as if we [are] about to redeem our racial...

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John Milton Oskison (Cherokee)

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p. 266

John Milton Oskison (1874– 1947) was born in Vinita, Cherokee Nation. He attended Willie Halsell College along with his friend Will Rogers. After graduating in 1894 he studied at Stanford University and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1898. At Stanford he began publishing articles and short stories. After winning a writing contest sponsored by Century Magazine in 1899 while doing...

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The Outlook for the Indian, 1903

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pp. 266-270

Fortunately for the white race that has extended our frontiers, the “bad” Indian has long ago ceased to exist; fortunately for the Indian who must still face the problem of living, the time has passed when the lawless, cynical white man can appropriate his reservations with impunity and have him “suppressed” when he begins to ask for justice. We are far enough away from the crunching of cavalry...

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The Problem of Old Harjo, 1907

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pp. 270-278

The Spirit of the Lord had descended upon old Harjo.4 From the new missionary, just out from New York, he had learned that he was a sinner. The fire in the new missionary’s eyes and her gracious appeal had convinced old Harjo that this was the time to repent and be saved. He was very much in earnest, and he assured Miss Evans that he wanted to be baptized and received into the church...

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The Indian in the Professions, 1912

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pp. 278-282

My business, or profession, is writing and editing. In my small way, I’ve tried to make myself an interpreter of the world, of the modern, progressive Indian. The greatest handicap I have is my enthusiasm. I know a lot of Indians who are making good; I know how sturdily they have set their faces toward the top of the hill, and how they’ve tramped on when the temptation to step aside and rest was...

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Address by J. M. Oskison, 1912

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pp. 282-284

My friends, I am an Indian; I was born and raised among them; but it has taken me a long time to figure out a satisfactory explanation of my interest in them. Naturally, we are not very much interested in people we are familiar with. I find this interest growing all the time. For an explanation my mind has gone back to a process of building up an ideal which went on in my youth....

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An Indian Animal Story, 1914

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pp. 284-285

Long time ago, when any little boy among the Indians wanted to stay inside the house and watch the men play the wheel and stone game, instead of going out with his bow and arrows to the woods, the old men would call him to the door and whisper:

“Little one, if you stay to watch the gamblers, you will get a striped head like the bullfrog.” And then the little boy would ask why the...

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Arthur Caswell Parker (Seneca)

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p. 286

Arthur Caswell Parker (1881– 1955) was born on the Cattaraugus Seneca Indian Reservation in New York. The family moved to a suburb of New York City in 1891. Parker graduated from a public high school in 1897. He attended Centenary Collegiate Institute and Dickinson Seminary. He also attended Harvard and the University of Rochester. After serving as ethnologist for the New...

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Making New Americans from Old, 1911

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pp. 286-289

America is the great mixing bowl of races wherein by some cosmic alchemy the great ruling race of the world is to be produced. Every racial element which is in the country today, or which is coming into the country tomorrow, is a potential element of the American race of the future. One of the first duties of a nation to itself is the insurance of its future quality. This means the Americanizing of the...

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Progress for the Indian, 1912

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pp. 289-298

In almost any conference of importance in which race progress is being discussed the most ordinary observer will discover that the Indian has two radically distinct classes of earnest champions. Each of these classes, though they differ widely as to what the Indian should be, is laboring to secure what it believes to be his best interests.

The first division consists of those who find so much to admire in the Indian as he was that they desire him to always remain...

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Needed Changes in Indian Affairs, 1912

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pp. 298-300

With every thoughtful student of human development, I believe that the Indian possesses every ability and capacity for development and that he is capable of any attainment possible for men, providing his environment is made normal. This postulates that the Indian is equal in inherent capacity and therefore not an inferior.

Many mistakes and much misery have been produced by dogmatically asserting the contrary. Hampered by a false environment...

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Henry Roe Cloud (Winnebago)

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p. 301

Henry Roe Cloud (1884– 1950) was born as Wo-Na-Xi-Lay-Hunka (War Chief ) on the Winnebago Reservation in Nebraska. He attended the Genoa Industrial School, the Santee Normal Training School, and the Mount Hermon School before attending Yale University. After graduating from Yale in 1910, he spent a year at Oberlin Seminary College and then transferred to the Auburn Theological Seminary, where he earned his bachelor of divinity degree. He...

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Education of the American Indian, 1915

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pp. 301-307

Education is for life— life in the workaday world with all its toil, successes, discouragements, and heartaches. Education unrelated to life is of no use. Education is the leading- out process of the young until they themselves know what they are best fitted for in life. Education is for complete living; that is, the educational process must involve the heart, head, and hand. The unity of man is coming to the forefront in the thought of the day. We cannot pay exclusive attention...

Elizabeth Bender (White Earth Chippewa)

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p. 308

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Training Indian Girls for Efficient Home Makers, 1916

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pp. 308-311

I do not intend to tire the reader with long drawn out stories of broken treaties, the misappropriation of Indian money, nor do I intend to dwell on the subject of how we have been starved and pampered on various reservations. Lamenting over past abuses, hanging around Indian trading stores, demanding certain rights, does not solve the Indian Problem. We hear a great deal about developing leaders for...

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A Hampton Graduate’s Experience, 1916

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pp. 311-316

After being graduated from Hampton in 1907, I accepted a Government appointment in Montana, and in the fall of 1909 started on my new and untried work— that of a teacher among my own people.

I was sent to work among the Blackfeet Indians who are located in the northwestern part of Montana. They are on a large reservation comprising many thousands of acres of excellent grazing land, which, however, is not well adapted to farming owing to the short...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 317-318

I am grateful to a number of people who have helped to make this collection possible.

This recovery project builds on my dissertation. I thank my dissertation advisor, Miles Orvell, for encouraging me to pursue this book project. I also thank the other members of my dissertation...

Notes

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pp. 319-332

Bibliography

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pp. 333-340

Index

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pp. 341-348