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For Each and Everyone

Catering for Individual Differences through Learning Studies

Mun Ling Lo ,Wing Yan Pong ,Pakey Pui Man Chik

Publication Year: 2005

This book describes a three-year research project which built on students' learning experience, and addresses the issue of individual differences in mainstream primary schools in Hong Kong. The Learning Study model described in this volume presents a view of learning which stems from a humanistic interest, and stresses on the possible "experiences" that the student has gone through in their learning process.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU


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pp. ix-x

Hong Kong, like many other societies, has given serious consideration to how teachers deal with the diverse range of talents and abilities of their pupils. This concern came to the fore with the shift from elitist to mass education systems, which resulted in a far larger population of students in school and longer improve its schools’ capacity to deal with student diversity. In 2000, it ...

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pp. xi-xi

We are very grateful to the Curriculum Development Institute of the Education and Manpower Bureau, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, for its generous support and encouragement, which made this project possible. ...

Research Team Members

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pp. xii-xii

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1. Predominant Explanations of Individual Differences and Methods of Handling These Differences

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pp. 1-8

In 2000, the Curriculum Development Institute in Hong Kong initiated research with an aim to find ways to cater for individual differences in students attending mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Our research team, comprising twelve researchers and a consultant from G

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2. Catering for Individual Differences: Building on Variation

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pp. 9-26

Instead of seeing the learner as a set of stimulus-response reactions, a bundle of nerves, or a number on the score sheet of a test or an inventory, some educators believe that we should be looking at the issue from a more humanistic perspective that enables us to explain learning from the possible “experiences” that the student has gone through in the process of learning. ...

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3. Making Use of Learning Studies to Cater for Individual Differences

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pp. 27-40

As elaborated in Chapter 2, in order to cater for individual differences, teachers must begin from the knowledge of the different ways pupils experience and understand the object(s) of learning. This knowledge or awareness is necessary for guiding the selection of relevant learning experiences as well as for structuring the teaching task, in order to bring about ...

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4. Learning Studies: Development and Impact

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pp. 41-74

In this chapter, we begin with an overall description of the development of the project over the three academic years. This is then followed by a close examination of what we have achieved, according to the criteria we suggested in Chapter 2. The impact of the project on the development of the two project schools and the project’s dissemination activities within the teaching ...

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5. Two Learning Studies

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pp. 75-116

Two Learning Studies, one from each of the two partnership schools, are reported in this chapter. The Learning Study reports are mainly descriptive accounts which show the struggles and processes that the research team went through with the teachers in using the theory (explained in Chapter 2) to plan and implement their research lessons, in order to help students of various ...

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6. The Effect of Learning Studies on Student Learning Outcomes

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pp. 117-132

In Chapter 4, we illustrated with evidence from the three-year research project how Learning Study can help to enhance the quality of teaching and learning through developing teachers’ professionalism in improving the curriculum, pedagogy, and use of diagnostic assessment. We also described the development of learning studies in the two primary schools during the three ...

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7. Drawing Insights from the “Catering for Individual Differences: Building on Variation” Project

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pp. 133-144

Have we been successful at developing a strategy to cater for individual differences? We believe that we have succeeded in pointing out a direction, even if we have not had sufficient success in solving the problem once and for all. Our work over the three years of the project confirms that critical differences exist between different students’ ways of seeing most of the things ...

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8. Conclusion: For Each and Everyone

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pp. 145-150

In this book, we wanted to share the ideas underlying an attempt to cater for individual differences and ideas about the ways in which this attempt was realized. The phrase “catering for individual differences” refers to the observation that, when all students are taught in the same way, they learn different things and they master to different extents that which they are expected to learn. ...

Appendix 1

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pp. 151-158

Appendix 2

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pp. 159-161

Appendix 3

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pp. 162-163

Appendix 4

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pp. 164-168


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pp. 169-174


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pp. 175-176

E-ISBN-13: 9789882201347
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622097575

Page Count: 188
Publication Year: 2005

OCLC Number: 667271518
MUSE Marc Record: Download for For Each and Everyone

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Subject Headings

  • Individual differences -- China -- Hong Kong -- Longitudinal studies.
  • Action research in education -- China -- Hong Kong.
  • Learning ability.
  • Learning, psychology of.
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