Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Quotation

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

List of Tables

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

In this book, we consider how the prehistoric inhabitants of the North American Southwest looked and sounded and how such characteristics conveyed people’s identities.
The project began with a symposium entitled “A Big View of Identity and Interaction: Macro-Regional Cultural Variation in the U.S. Southwest,” organized by Jill Neitzel for the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology ...

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Introduction

Jill E. Neitzel

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pp. 1-12

A prehistoric traveler on a journey across the North American Southwest would have encountered all sorts of people whose identities could be recognized by how they looked and talked. Each individual’s appearance presented a composite of morphological and cultural attributes. The morphological would have included stature, robustness, facial features, skull shape, and skin color. ...

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1. Physical Variation

Ann L. W. Stodder

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pp. 13-34

Throughout the Southwest, this volume’s hypothetical traveler would have observed differences in people’s physical characteristics. While much of this variation in stature, weight, head shape, facial features, and skin, eye, and hair color was genetic, some of it was also affected by cultural practices. These visible characteristics were part of the mosaic of features and accoutrements that conveyed information about an individual’s sex, age, ...

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2. Clothing

Laurie D. Webster

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pp. 35-70

A traveler in the prehistoric Southwest would have learned a lot about people met along the way just by looking at their clothing. As the most visible, technically complex, and expressive form of adornment, clothing can convey a myriad of identity messages, including the wearer’s gender, age, social status, religion, cultural affiliation, and connections with other cultural groups. ...

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3. Ornaments

Jill E. Neitzel

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pp. 71-102

At most destinations across the prehistoric Southwest, a traveler would have noticed people wearing ornaments on various parts of their bodies. Made primarily of marine shell, turquoise, and black and red stone, this jewelry came in a variety of forms: necklaces, bracelets, anklets, earrings, brooches, rings, and nose and lip plugs. ...

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4. Hair

Jill E. Neitzel

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pp. 103-130

Throughout the prehistoric Southwest, a traveler would have observed people wearing a variety of hairstyles and hair decorations. Virtually everyone’s hair was black, thick, and straight until middle age when its color gradually turned gray. But within this overall uniformity, hair was arranged and decorated according to cultural norms and personal preferences. ...

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5. Facial Decoration

Jill E. Neitzel

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pp. 131-148

At some destinations, this volume’s traveler would have observed people with painted or tattooed designs on their faces. Among the diverse personal characteristics that convey information about identity, the face is special and is the only one with a central role in developing social relationships and marking identity from infancy. Babies are drawn to faces and soon learn to distinguish those of their caregivers.1 ...

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6. Language

Jane H. Hill

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pp. 149-172

Moving across the Southwest, a prehistoric traveler would have encountered people who spoke different languages. Language functions to communicate messages, but the way we speak also conveys information about who we are. Most people are members of multiple groups, many of which have their own distinctive ways of talking. ...

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Conclusion

Jill E. Neitzel

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pp. 173-178

Moving short distances from one community to another and greater distances from one area to another, this volume’s hypothetical traveler would have observed tremendous diversity in how prehistoric Southwesterners looked and spoke. Variety would have been present even within individual communities. Over the course of an extended journey, personal characteristics would change at different rates, ...

Appendix (Tables)

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pp. 179-196

Notes

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pp. 197-220

References

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pp. 221-254

Figure Sources and Permissions

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pp. 255-258

Contributors

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pp. 259-260

Index

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pp. 261-272