Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

Throughout my graduate school career at the University of New Mexico and the University of Washington, I was lucky to have some great mentors. Ricky Lee Allen, Kelly Edwards, Polly Olsen, and Daniel Wildcat provided crucial support. My grandfather James O. Baker was an early hero of mine. ...

Part I. The Politics of Multiracialism

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1. History of Racial Hierarchy and Race “Mixture”

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pp. 3-14

Racial identifications are not individual markers but are developed in relation to collective identities within racialized societies and spaces, products of historical, political, and social struggles. This is particularly true within learning environments—something happens in schools, especially regarding how racial identities are formed and assigned in ways that affect schooling experiences. ...

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2. Overview of Literature on Mixed-Race/Multiracial Students

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pp. 15-48

There is little empirical research examining how schools influence the racial identity choices of multiracial students, in particular mixed-race students who identify as American Indian. Even more troubling is the lack of literature on the experiences of mixed-race students using racial identity choice as a social and political tool to negotiate race discourse, actions, and spaces. ...

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3. Methodology of Study

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pp. 49-58

Due to the limited literature available, this qualitative study is somewhat exploratory as it seeks to understand the perspectives of mixed-race college students’ racial identity choices. I relied on a qualitative case study method of conducting interviews and groups sessions for data, and then used qualitative approaches to analyze, interpret, and present the data. ...

Part II. American Indian Mixed-Race Experience

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4. Racial(ized) Self-Perceptions

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pp. 61-92

It evident that what happened in participants’ lives before they arrived on a college campus was crucial to their college experience. The students articulated the influences on their sense of mixed-race identity, particularly family influence and the impact of their schooling and peers. While most students attending college have certain expectations and experiences, ...

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5. Peer Interactions and Influences

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pp. 93-104

Through students’ stories about their interactions with other racial communities, one is able to glean the racial assumptions and misconceptions that shape racial interactions. Most often the response to and interaction among mixed-race students and others depends upon the mixed-race student’s appearance. In a related vein, a common experience among those with discernible ...

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6. The Impact of Race on Academic Experiences

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pp. 105-120

Students had few if any positive things to say about how Cliff View College addressed their needs as a mixed-race American Indian population. Rather, they described being placed by the college into identifiable raced groups and being addressed in that context for the remainder of their college careers. Being placed according to a specific affiliation ...

Part III. Undoing “Indianness”

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7. The Notion of “Indianness”

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pp. 123-132

The historic inauguration of our nation’s first mixed-race president, Barack Obama, has heightened the need to discuss the issues that surround the meaning of race. For many reasons, President Obama’s mixed-race background embodies the social and political gaps perpetuated by skin color and the material value of one’s mixedness. As President Obama states: ...

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8. Reenvisioning Tribal Colleges through CRT and Tribal Critical Race Theory

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pp. 133-138

This study’s results provide tribal colleges and other institutes of higher education with important issues to consider as they seek to provide a learning environment for an increasing population of mixed-race American Indian students. The students’ stories shed light on frustrations that need to be addressed. Although tribal colleges have not yet done so, ...

Appendix A: First Participant Interview

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pp. 139-140

Appendix B: Second Participant Interview

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pp. 141-142

Appendix C: Participant Characteristics

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pp. 143-144

References

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pp. 145-152

Index

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pp. 153-158