Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Epitaph, In Memoriam

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Contents

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pp. ix-xii

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Translators’ Introduction

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pp. xiii-xviii

In Self-Understanding and Lifeworld: Basic Traits of a Phenomenological Hermeneutics, Hans-Helmuth Gander’s Gadamerian orientation leads him to think seriously about what is typically ignored or neglected in the current state of phenomenology, namely, our hermeneutic experience of reading. ...

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Preface

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pp. xix-xxii

Augustine’s famous question—“What is time?”—with respect to which he professes to be in the condition of an intelligible unintelligibility [verständigen Unverständigkeit], could have as an answer precisely this knowing ignorance, if the question concerning human being itself is asked: ...

Introduction

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1. Exposition of the Connection between Selfhood, Lifeworld, and History

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pp. 1-7

“Actually abiding philosophy can only become the true philosophy of its time, i.e., is powerful [mächtig] over its time.”1 With this reflection, in which Martin Heidegger expresses a maxim of his thinking, he binds himself to a tradition within which Aristotle as much as Augustine, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, or Nietzsche can be named. ...

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2. Conception and Outline of the Treatise with an Excursus on the Paratextual Functions of Remarks

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pp. 7-20

In the task of a structural analysis that I have thus far posited, the concept of structure [Struktur] denotes that hermeneutic categorical (and therein from the outset already historicized) sense that Merleau-Ponty also had in view in his determination of the concept of structure.17 As far as the historically variable and subtle relational context is to be thought with the concept of structure so grasped, ...

Part One - In the Network of Texts: Toward the Perspective Character of Understanding

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3. Inception and Beginning: Toward a Forestructure of Understanding

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pp. 21-27

One is to write one’s first sentence in such a way that the reader will want, without fail, to read the second sentence. So reads the advice that William Faulkner imparted to anyone who wishes to embark on the adventure of writing a text. Truthfully, this is no easy demand to fulfill, especially if one considers that—regarded from outside ...

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4. Approaching the Question of Interpretation: On the Relation of “Author-Text-Reader”

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pp. 28-29

However, with the reference to the claim of validity raised within and by philosophical texts, we may be at the same time prevented from a possible misunderstanding that could be assumed with regard to the genetic disposition of the text, namely that the task is dictated to the reader of a text for its interpretation, that is, ...

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5. On the Relation of Writing and Reading to Self-Formation

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pp. 29-32

The relationship between author, text, and reader is not an equation in the sense that seamlessly communicates intentions of the author to the reader about and as a text. A text thus does not determine itself only by the intentions bound up with the author, nor exhaust itself in the effects bound up with them, ...

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6. The Text as a Connection of Sense in the Horizon of the Occurrence of Tradition as Effective History

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pp. 32-35

What we can sketch out for the role of the reader in the meshwork of a text applies also to the author, who in similar fashion is not only himself a reader, but also in writing weaves himself into a net of relations whose threads he no longer holds authoritatively in his hands, and can only at best still lull himself into illusions. ...

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7. In the Governing Network of Discourse

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pp. 36-43

In a borrowing from Nietzsche’s term and concept [Begriff und Konzept] of genealogy, which he characterizes as “real history” or “historical sense,”31 Michel Foucault speaks about the fact that “the world of actual history [knows] only a single realm in which there is neither providence nor a final cause, but only [and here Foucault cites Nietzsche] ...

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8. The Sense-Creating Potential of Texts: The Modification of the World

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pp. 44-51

Retained in this equally complex and discontinuous structured horizon, the text accordingly reproduces the pregivenness of the world—understood as sense—neither simply nor in parts, with regard to the question of the connection of the occurrence of the text, in that the text produces contingent self-formation, ...

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9. Excursus on the Metaphor of the “Book of the World”

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pp. 51-53

If texts take shape as discourse in this sense, where possible, they also formulate and inscribe themselves in the horizon of the effective-historical, actualized, intersected and extended occurrence of tradition, then talk of the text here should not awaken the association that this horizon, appearing as it were like a “supertext,” ...

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10. In the Network of Tradition: On Understanding as an Incursion into the Current of Texts

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pp. 53-61

The understanding appropriation of texts is part of the occurrence of tradition comprehending them, on account of which Gadamer can stress that the understanding is “not to be thought of so much as an action of subjectivity, but rather as an incursion into an occurrence of tradition in which past and present constantly mediate one another.”96 ...

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11. On the Interpretive Character of Knowledge in the Wake of the Historicity of Understanding

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pp. 61-66

If in connection with the question of the understanding of texts the conversation repeatedly turned to the principle of effective history so central in Gadamer’s thinking, it should in no way be inferred that effective history should thereby be implemented as a supplementary methodological instrument to the end of a “better” textual interpretation. ...

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12. Parenthesis on the Discourse of Metaphysics “As Such” as a Problem of an Epochal Revaluation in View of a Signature of the Present

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pp. 66-72

What appears as a profound insight in Nietzsche’s thesis of the death of God is, as Manfred Frank formulates it, the “becoming-doubtful of ‘metaphysics’ as a socially effective creator of justification and giver of sense.”132 Properly grasping this insight, however, requires, ...

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13. Critical Remarks on the Concept of an Absolute Reason

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pp. 73-76

What remains is to pursue the business of a critique, which, in the self-illumination of its own conditions—that which has been called the hermeneutical situation—brings to light the network of historical relations even in its fissures and disparate developments, which is concrete as lifeworld, the underlying ground of our self- and world understanding. ...

Part Two - I and World: The Question Concerning the Ground of Philosophy

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pp. 77-78

Chapter One: On the Search for the Certainty of the ‘I’

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14. Toward the Task of a Hermeneutical Interpretation of the Concept and Its Relation to Everyday Experience: An Approximation

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pp. 79-82

In order to disclose the problem area of self-understanding in a more far-reaching way, in the following the ground that founds and bears all knowing, and presents in the concept of the lifeworld one of the central challenges for philosophical thinking, is shown. ...

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15. Wonder and Doubt: On the Entry Point of Philosophical Reflection

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pp. 82-88

If one looks around in the history of philosophy, one finds this state of affairs clearly depicted in large part in that classic opening passage of Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy, in which the dialectical tension between a premeditative and meditative bearing generates that stimulating climate in which the philosophical question forces itself open, ...

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16. Under the Spell of Certainty: Descartes’s Self-Certainty of the “I am” as a Hermeneutical Problem

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pp. 88-98

The allusion to Heidegger is appropriate, beyond the terminologically illuminating clarification of the concept of reflection applied in the given connection, in directing attention to the possibility of now letting those tears and breaks become visible in the continuous spectrum opened by means of wonder and doubt ...

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17. The Ontological Positioning of the Cartesian Ego between Acquisition of the Self and Loss of the World

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pp. 99-110

The methodological start of the ego sum as ens certum is that which drives Descartes into the monologue with doubt, which hyperbolically separates thinking of the self from everything worldly in well-known stages of the path of doubt.54 By this means, as Gerhart Schmidt stresses, the “existentiell, freely chosen solitude of the one meditating ...

Chapter Two: On Life in Lifeworlds: Critical Considerations of Husserl’s Phenomenology of the Lifeworld

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18. The Concept of “Lifeworld” as an Indication of the Problem

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pp. 111-116

The understanding of reality brought into our approach orients itself to that which has long since become indigenous to philosophy in the concept of the lifeworld.1 If Gadamer’s dictum applies, that a statement is ...

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19. Husserl’s Recourse to Θαυμάζɛɩν as an “Irruption into the Theoretical Attitude”

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pp. 116-118

In his Vienna “Crisis” lecture, Husserl himself refers to the Greek-European understanding of science (that is, for him, “spoken universally: philosophy as such”12), inaugurated by Plato and Aristotle, which has its origin precisely in the knowledge-forming moment of θαυμάζειν as the “irruption into the theoretical attitude.”...

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20. The Problem of Objectivism in the Tension between Δóξα and 'Eπɩστήμη

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pp. 119-126

In the emergence of objectivism, according to Husserl, there is presaged that crisis which assumes its final hardened form in the development of the modern mathematized sciences and the technological domination of the world ascribed to them. Husserl accordingly recognizes the cause of this crisis in the claim raised ...

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21. Toward a Philosophical Thematization of Natural Life-in-the-World

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pp. 126-129

In order to be able to appreciate this step in correspondence with its philosophical consequence, which, as will be seen, not only adumbrates the claim to a solution raised therein but at the same time also its failure, it is initially necessary to concern oneself a bit more intimately with the relation of prephilosophical life praxis and its philosophical thematization. ...

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22. On Husserl’s Transcendental Self-Grounding of Philosophy with a View to the Question of the World

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pp. 129-140

In view of the question concerning the motivation to leave the mundane in favor of the philosophical attitude, regarded from some shiftings of emphasis, as Held stresses, Husserl gives “no substantially new answer”82 vis- à-vis the tradition of transcendental philosophy. Thus for Husserl as well—and one might add with a view to his sense of his mission, ...

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23. Husserl’s Application of the Task of a Lifeworldly Ontology

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pp. 140-152

If one attends to the “concrete lifeworld,”136 which encompasses the entire sociocultural everyday world, as the mundane meaning of the concept of the lifeworld, the environment of life, it does not always remain the same. To be sure, this straightforward living a day at a time is always a “being-directed to this or that, ...

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24. The Function of History in Husserl’s Transcendental-Phenomenological Conception

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pp. 152-168

However, the suppression of the concrete factical historical moment, which in its problematic had shown itself at the point of the perception-theoretical reduction to the spatiotemporal bodily world (observed as a hermeneutic of facticity) as a loss of the living plenitude of the concrete lifeworld, ...

Part Three - Self-understanding and the Historical World: Basic Traits of a Hermeneutical Ontology of Facticity

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pp. 169-170

Chapter One: The Hermeneutical Turn: Heidegger’s Critical Dialogue with Husserlian Phenomenology

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25. Husserl versus Heidegger: On Situating their Disagreement

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pp. 171-175

The lifeworld as the pretheoretical world in which we live—with a view to the question of human self-relations, how are we to make it adequately accessible to a philosophical thematization? This question is all the more urgent insofar as the critical objections that have arisen in the course of the discussion of Husserl’s last great transcendental meditation ...

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26. The Hermeneutical Stance on a Second View

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pp. 175-188

To take what is proper to Heidegger’s transmutation of phenomenology more closely into view—as the working out of a general, consequential conception for hermeneutics as such—stands at the center of the following analyses. However, instead of going into it in medias res it is necessary to engage in a few intermediate thoughts ...

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27. The “Blind Spot” in the Phenomenological Eye: Heidegger’s Critique of Husserl with a View to the Structure of Care

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pp. 188-203

The difference between Husserl’s and Heidegger’s understanding of phenomenology that we have addressed can, in short, also establish that Husserl’s transcendental-phenomenological conception of reduction, insofar as it has its philosophical center and telos in the idea of absolute subjectivity, carries out a “division” ...

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28. The Metamorphosis of Phenomenology into the Hermeneutical

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pp. 204-226

To seek the approach of phenomenological questioning in pretheoretical life, as Heidegger calls for in 1923 in his critique of Husserl’s theoreticism, does not date, however, originally from this moment. Rather, this insight, as the tonic note, forms a kind of pedal point that determines the Heideggerian conception from at least 1919 ...

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29. The Function and Relation of the Hermeneutical Ontology of Facticity, Fundamental Ontology, and Metontology

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pp. 227-236

The requisite clarification of Heidegger’s use of the concept of ontology does not follow here in the sense of a genetic-historical questioning that undertakes to illuminate the particular guiding understanding of ontology in the course of Heidegger’s work in its presuppositions and objectives. ...

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30. Aspects of a Contemporary Philosophical Situating of the Discourse on Facticity

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pp. 236-244

How will we get around this emanation of the fundamental-ontological analysis of phenomena if the approach of the hermeneutics of facticity is preferred and divergences thereby emerge, as in the question of the Heideggerian version of the concepts of ontology and anthropology? ...

Chapter Two: The Experiental Structure of the Self: Toward a Hermeneutics of Factical Historical Life

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31. The Leap into the World: On Outlining the Factical-Hermeneutical Concept of Experience

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pp. 245-258

To gain the philosophical attitude that appears necessary from out of the hermeneutical turn of phenomenology for an analysis of determinate human life as facticity means, to begin with, as Pöggeler puts it, “to break away from or shut off the machinery of Husserl’s phenomenological reductions.” ...

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32. Analysis of Environmental Experience

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pp. 258-266

For the task of phenomenologically-hermeneutically illuminating this issue, Heidegger’s analysis of the experience of the environment, written in the Kriegsnotsemester, offers an incisive point of access. For the “experience of the environment is no matter of contingency, but rather lies in the essence of life in and for itself" ...

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33. Remarks on the Problematic of the Alien

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pp. 266-278

In laying out the moment of significance proper to all experience of the environment as the product of his analysis, Heidegger not only contradicts those foundational and universal claims of Husserl that we have looked at in detail above (in the latter’s attempt to avoid the concretely experienceable plurality of the lifeworld ...

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34. The Self-World as the Center of Life-Relations

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pp. 278-294

It has come to light that with the analysis of the experience of the environment, whose task proceeds on the basis of the pretheoretical situational experience of life, the hermeneutics of facticity that Heidegger brings into play in his initial creative phase takes the form of a phenomenology of the lifeworld. ...

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35. The Having-of-Oneself within the Field of Tension between Winning and Losing Oneself

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pp. 295-300

In order to advance to the phenomenally appropriate insight into having oneself, for the most part undiscovered in factical experience, Heidegger rejects from the start any possible misinterpretations of the character of having in the sense of the methodological task of destruktion. Thus, in having, it is not about an “explicit closure to myself as an ‘I, ...

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36. The Structure of the Self as a Function of Life-Experience

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pp. 300-319

In proceeding to the next step, the question arises as to what, in this having, the ‘had self ’ is. Yet this question poses itself in this form only within that philosophical perspective that undertakes to exhibit the self-sufficient having-oneself of factical life in its ontological structures, ...

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37. On the Status of a Hermeneutics of Facticity as Ontological Hermeneutics

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pp. 319-328

By means of the demonstration of understanding carried out as the original mode of human being, Heidegger succeeds in the traditional task of hermeneutics in the phenomenological orientation to human life: philosophically thinking together the understanding of structures of sense implied in the objectivations of life ...

Chapter Three: Application—Destruktion—History: Hermeneutical Sketches of a Philosophy of the Situation

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38. Hermeneutical Application

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pp. 329-34

As a hermeneutical problem of utilization [Anwendung], the application [Applikation] forms its own ontological sense of contribution of historical hermeneutics. Hans-Georg Gadamer in particular has stressed this with a view to the task of textual interpretation in this sense and he has exemplarily developed it in regard to its function in legal hermeneutics. ...

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39. The Critical Sense: On the Task of Phenomenological Destruktion

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pp. 340-347

The interpretedness [Ausgelegtheit] of today becomes, in the perspective of effective-historical consciousness in the applicative sense, a thematic focal point of hermeneutical analysis. Heidegger thereby aims, in the ‘presence of the proximal’ [Gegenwart des Zunächst], at its basic phenomena of ‘everydayness’ and ‘publicness,’ ...

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40. History as the Organon of Understanding Life

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pp. 347-362

The taking up of human existence as the originary realm of the historical, existentiell historicity, is the relation on which the criterion must be established, which in the sense of its relevance for Dasein allows just as much for an adequate positing of the question of history, or more precisely of its forms of appearance in factical life, ...

Open End

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41. Retrospective Reflections on the World-Conceptual Relevance of a Hermeneutics of Facticity

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pp. 363-368

With the hermeneutical demonstration that our never other than lifeworldly situated self-understanding is always already historical at the origin of its self-worldly significance, the factual analysis of Heidegger’s early work comes to an end, in that for one thing, it makes explicit the point of departure of phenomenological hermeneutics ...

Bibliography

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pp. 369-398

Index

Subject Index

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pp. 399-408

Index of Names

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pp. 409-417