Cover

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Half Title, Series Page, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Introduction: A Search for Identity

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pp. 1-6

The abandoned row house in the Englewood area of Chicago’s South Side had suffered years of human and animal squatters. Termites had bored into the wood, and vandals had made off with anything of even minimal value. But just before the structure’s scheduled demolition in 2009, ...

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1. Boyhood Interrupted

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pp. 7-14

Frederick Douglass, often celebrated in northern states for his consummate oratorical skill and reasoned abolition arguments, was not at all well received at an 1847 invited speech in Pennsylvania. A barrage of rotten eggs and rocks accompanied jeers and catcalls from the excited audience. Some shouted, “Throw out the nigger!” ...

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2. Being Prepared

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pp. 15-23

Augustus Batchelder knew a few things about Oberlin College in Ohio: It admitted male and female students, black and white; it had both a college preparatory program and a college; and, along with its surrounding community, it had earned a reputation as a hotbed of abolitionist sentiment and evangelical missionary zeal. ...

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3. Experiment at Harvard

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pp. 24-34

Richard Greener’s entrance into Harvard in 1865 was not only a groundbreaking event but also a nostalgic homecoming for the twenty-one-year-old, who fondly recalled the adventures of his Cambridge adolescence. He recalled entering Harvard Square and skipping among “her green and elms and red brick educational factories.” ...

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4. An Accidental Academic

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pp. 35-47

Upon graduation from Harvard in 1870, Greener well understood the reality of his immediate circumstances. After the years at Oberlin, Andover, and Harvard, he had substantial debts, including at least one institutional loan from Harvard.1 He would not think of asking for any further educational funding from Augustus Batchelder. ...

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5. Professing in a Small and Angry Place

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pp. 48-63

Arriving at the Columbia, South Carolina, railway depot in the autumn of 1873, twenty-nine-year-old Richard Greener would have noted one new sight in particular: numerous black citizens, as well as white, populated the wide wooden platform. Mostly men, they sat on benches or leaned on posts, waiting for trains of three different railroads ...

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6. The Brutal Retreat

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pp. 64-73

The printed circular, ready to be nailed on trees and wooden posts or read aloud at gatherings of South Carolina’s black citizens, stated, “Colored Democrats, you shall be employed at fair wages; you shall have houses to live in. You, in voting the Democratic ticket, have looked at what is your good. . . . The Radical Negroes shall not be employed. ...

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7. Unsettled Advocate

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pp. 74-88

The dismantling of progress toward racial equality happened quickly in South Carolina. After Daniel Chamberlain conceded the governor’s race to Wade Hampton, many Republican officeholders and legislators quickly resigned, turning control of the state legislature over to the Democratic majority. The University of South Carolina, ...

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8. A Violent Attack and Hopeless Case

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pp. 89-105

Time spent working, speaking, writing, and campaigning for racial justice left little opportunity for anything else. Greener was making a well-regarded name for himself but barely managing a bit of home life with his family and some correspondence with friends. Yet, he was determined to maintain a connection with the young black men he had guided ...

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9. Monumental Plans

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pp. 106-116

William Russell Grace was accustomed to thinking big. He left his home in Ballylinan, Ireland, at age fourteen to travel to New York City. He returned two years later but soon traveled to Peru to work as a ship’s chandler and then to build his own business. As a wealthy shipping magnate and committed philanthropist, he had nearly no political experience ...

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10. Off White

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pp. 117-128

Richard Greener would soon refer to his years with the Grant Monument Association as a period when he “had disappeared beneath the waters.” He had spent only limited time advocating for his race in print or in speech during those years, but he still longed to be viewed as a (or perhaps “the”) prominent nationwide voice in those arenas. ...

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11. Our Man in Vladivostok

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pp. 129-143

The breakaway was complete. Greener’s journey from life as he had known it took him first to Chicago to visit some distant relatives, then through Seattle and on to Tacoma, Washington. There he boarded a steamship heading out of the Puget Sound and across the Pacific Ocean. At sea in weather that varied from “abominable” to “charming ...

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12. Closure in Black and White

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pp. 144-160

Early in the morning of April 18, 1906, the earth heaved and split, mountains shifted, and buildings careened off their foundations. The San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fires, occurring just after Richard Greener arrived back on US soil in that city, might be viewed as symbolic of his difficulties to come. ...

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Epilogue: The Passing of Richard Greener

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pp. 161-168

The fiftieth anniversary of desegregation at the University of South Carolina was a yearlong celebration in honor of the integration of the student body in 1963. It began with the appointment of a large committee appropriately representative of wide-ranging academic areas and student interests. The committee met and divided into subcommittee. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 169-170

I am fortunate that many friends and colleagues accompanied me on the journey that became this book, and I am certain I cannot adequately thank them. The first to contribute and encourage was my friend and collaborator in past research and writing, Professor Carolyn B. Matalene. ...

Notes

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pp. 171-190

Bibliography

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pp. 191-198

Index

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pp. 199-206