An Introduction for Community-Based Rehabilitation Workers
Publication Year: 1996
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
Table of Contents
We owe our thanks and appreciation to so many people that it is impossible to identify them all by name; without the contribution of each, whether identified here collectively or individually, we would never have completed this book. The process has involved organizers and sponsors - who provided the foundations, aims and objectives of the project, and the venue in China...
This book has developed from the materials and manual we wrote for a course on the rehabilitation of human communication disorders. The course was one component of a World Health Organisation (WHO) project in China, the objective of which was to train medical doctors in community-based rehabilitation (CBR). This on-going project is also supported by the Hong Kong Society of
This text is designed to act as a reference and source of basic information and material on communication disorders. It covers the most commonly occurring problems which are seen in both children and adults, and reflects current perspectives applicable to community-based care. Communication is the major way of achieving everyday exchanges of life. Through communication we make requests, share feelings, negotiate...
PART I: PRINCIPLES
1. Principles of Communication: Development or Disorder
Communication is an exchange of feelings, knowledge and wants between two or more people. It may be either non-verbal or verbal and includes everything from the subtle comfort and exchange between a caregiver and a young child to the sophistication of a lecture delivered to a professional group. While many animals give evidence of some abilities to communicate,...
2. Principles of Counselling
The term 'counselling' encompasses the relationships, skills and processes used when one person helps another with a problem or series of problems. Often this help takes place during a discussion or within an interview. For the rehabilitation of communication disorders we require both counselling and interviewing skills. These will also be useful in all our human...
3. Principles of Documentation and Evaluation
In examining the issue of documentation, there are two broad categories: data collection and reports. Data Collection: Data collection refers to the systematic collecting of data. This applies both to an individual patient and to an overall programme. Data collection is essential if we are to have a means to evaluate our programmes. In order to assess patient progress, we must have an initial...
4. Principles of Prevention
Prevention has long been recognized as an essential concept in the fields of medicine and public health. The importance of prevention in communication disorders has been recognized more slowly but is now also recognized as essential in the effective management of communication disorders. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Committee on...
5. Principles of Research
Research designs can be experimental or descriptive. Experimental designs will be outlined below. Descriptive research can be: 1. Comparative research. This involves studying the performance of two different groups on one measure, e.g., deaf children and hearing children. 2. Developmental research. This measures change over time (longitudinal research). The independent variable is maturation. 3. Correlational research. Here,...
PART II: APPLICATIONS
6. Speech Problems
Speech is the primary means by which most people convey their language - or mutually understood code - to others. In terms of assessment and remediation, it is important to understand the difference between speech and language. By speech we mean the articulatory process through which sounds and words are produced in the vocal tract. Speech and language...
7. Child Language Problem
Although most children seem to learn their native language relatively easily, with no formal assistance, this task can be very difficult for some children. There may be a medical basis to explain all or part of a child's problems. Children with significant hearing impairments do not have the same opportunities as others to listen to normal speech and language. Children with mental handicap will acquire speech...
8. Hearing Disability
Aural rehabilitation (AR) is the study, diagnosis and remediation of communication disorders resulting from hearing loss. The populations to whom it applies are: • children born with hearing loss • pre-lingually deafened children • hearing children of deaf parents • signing people wishing to talk • adults with increasing deafness • those who have received a cochlear implant Aural rehabilitation requires the maximum use of residual hearing and...
9. Voice Problem
Voice disorders are categorized into disorders of intensity (a speaking voice which is too loud or too quiet), disorders of frequency (a voice which is too high in pitch or too low), or disorders of quality (a voice which is rough, hoarse, harsh or otherwise unpleasant in sound). A voice disorder is said to exist when a person's quality, pitch, and loudness differ from those of...
A laryngectomee is a person who has had the larynx surgically removed. A glossectomee is a person who has had the tongue, or part of the tongue, surgically removed. Management of the laryngectomee or glossectomee involves several components: medical, psychological and daily living. However, the most obvious problem for the laryngectomee is loss of voice and for the...
11. Cleft Lip and Palate
Cleft lip and palate is a congenital malformation of the oral-facial region. Clefts are caused by the failure of certain structures to fuse (unite) in the developing embryo during pregnancy. Clefts of the lip are caused by failure of the fronto-nasal process and the lateral maxillary process to fuse. In the normally developing fetus, this should happen approximately six weeks after conception.
12. The Stroke Patient
Stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) may give rise to two disorders of speech (dysarthrias and dyspraxias) and/or disorders of language (aphasias). In this section we will consider both types of disorders and their management. Stroke is the commonest, but not the only, disease which leads to acquired disorders of speech and language, and the principles and practices...
13. The Non-verbal Patient
Some people are unable to speak or are unable to speak clearly enough to make themselves understood. For them speech alone is not an effective means of communication. One definition of this population is 'a group of individuals for whom speech is temporarily or permanently inadequate to meet all of their needs, and whose inability to speak is not due primarily to a hearing impairment' (ASHA, 1981).
Page Count: 184
Publication Year: 1996
OCLC Number: 655807800
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Communication Disorders