Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Epigraph

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pp. 1-6

Contents

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pp. 7-10

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Preface

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pp. 11-12

I began writing this book in the belief that a narrative history of the Hispanic Middle Ages, based upon the research and investigations of the best contemporary historians, would be useful to English readers. Until recently American and most northern European scholars have...

Abbreviations for Citations

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pp. 13-16

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Hispania

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pp. 17-34

Within the thousand years from the coming of the Visigoths in the fifth century to the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella in the fifteenth, the character of Hispanic civilization was shaped and molded in significant ways. In the struggle for existence in an often inhospitable environment...

Part I. The Visigothic Era, 415–711

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1. The Visigothic Kingdom

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pp. 37-54

During the fifth century, Spain slipped gradually away from Roman rule into the hands of the barbarian tribes driven westward by the general tide of invasion. Vandals, Alans, and Suevi occupied the south, west, and north early in the century bringing war and destruction to...

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2. Visigothic Government

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pp. 55-69

In 418, after many years of wandering through the Roman Empire without a fixed abode, the Visigoths achieved recognition as federati with the right to settle in sections of southern Gaul and with the obligation to render military aid to the emperor. Retaining political autonomy...

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3. Visigothic Society and Culture

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pp. 70-88

For nearly three centuries the Visigoths dominated the political structure of the peninsula, but they were never more than a minority of the total population. Of the Germanic tribes who invaded the peninsula, the Alans and the Siling Vandals had been largely destroyed in wars...

Part II. The Ascendancy Of Islam, 711–1031

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4. The Emirate of Córdoba

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pp. 91-115

The conquest of Spain early in the eighth century marked the culmination of nearly a century of Muslim expansion. The Visigothic kingdom collapsed, and the unity of the peninsula was shattered once more. The Muslims called the territory under their rule al-Andalus, a name possibly...

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5. The Caliphate of Córdoba

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pp. 116-144

At the commencement of the tenth century al-Andalus appeared on the verge of disaster, but the remarkable talents of Abd al-Rahman III averted the destruction of the kingdom and reaffirmed and strengthened its unity. Indeed, the tenth century proved to be an epoch of unrivaled...

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6. Government, Society, and Culture in al-Andalus, 711–1031

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pp. 137-162

From the beginning of the period of Muslim conquest al-Andalus was but a province in an empire ruled by the caliph of Damascus, an empire extending from the borders of India to the straits of Gibraltar. Although the Muslims penetrated into the deepest sectors of the peninsula...

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7. Government, Society, and Culture in Christian Spain, 711–1035

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pp. 163-190

In contrast to al-Andalus, Christian Spain during the era of the Umayyads existed only as fragments—states varying in size and importance. From west to east they were the kingdom of Asturias-Leôn, the kingdom of Navarre, the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza, and...

Part III. A Balance Of Power, From The Fall Of The Caliphate To Las Navas de Tolosa, 1031–1212

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8. Alfonso VI, the Jaifas and the Almoravids

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pp. 193-214

The eleventh century was a period of transition characterized by the integration of Christian Spain into western Christendom and by the political restructuring of al-Andalus. The Christian states intensified their relations with northern Europe, especially with France and the...

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9. Alfonso VII and the Leonese Empire

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pp. 215-233

During the reign of Alfonso VII, in the first half of the twelfth century, the concept of a Leonese empire, developed centuries before, reached its culmination and briefly acquired a juridical existence. In fact, however, Alfonso VIFs claims to dominion over the whole of the peninsula...

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10. The Duel with the Almohads

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pp. 234-253

The second half of the twelfth century was one of the most critical times in the history of the reconquest. The Almohads, after destroying the Almoravid empire, consolidated their hold in Morocco and restored the balance of power in Spain. Though unable to reconquer Toledo...

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11. Government, 1031–1212

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pp. 254-281

In the nearly two hundred years from the fall of the caliphate of Cordoba to the defeat of the Almohads at Las Navas de Tolosa, the political structure of the peninsula developed with a greater complexity than previously had seemed likely. The disintegration of al-Andalus...

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12. Society and the Economy, 1031–1212

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pp. 282-304

In the two centuries following the collapse of the caliphate of Cordoba the population of the Iberian peninsula increased, as did the numbers of the distinct racial groups. There were several reasons for this. A natural rise in the birth rate appears to have occurred, as is suggested...

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13. Religion and Culture, 1031–1212

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pp. 305-330

The nearly two hundred years from the fall of the caliphate of Cordoba to the death of Alfonso VIII of Castile witnessed the tentative beginnings of a truly significant Christian culture in Spain and the full flowering of Islamic culture. Christian Spain was open to all the influences...

Part IV. The Great Reconquest and the Beginnings of Overseas Expansion, 1212–1369

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14. The Great Reconquest

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pp. 333-357

The thirteenth century saw the rapid reconquest of the greater part of al-Andalus, the definitive formation of the Christian states, and the beginnings of Catalan expansion into the Mediterranean area. The Almohads never fully recovered from the staggering blow suffered at Las...

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15. Alfonso X and the Lure of Empire

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pp. 358-381

The untimely death of Fernando III in 1252 closed the age of the great reconquest. Muslim territory in the peninsula was reduced to the kingdom of Granada in tributary vassalage to Castile, a relationship that no one ever considered permanent. The conquest of Granada, however...

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16. The Overseas Expansion of the Crown of Aragon

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pp. 382-406

As the thirteenth century gave way to the fourteenth and a new generation of leaders came to the fore, political interest and activity centered upon two principal issues. In the first place, the crown of Aragon, cut off from the possibility of making any further substantial territorial acquisitions...

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17. The Straits, the Mediterranean, and Civil War

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pp. 407-427

The middle years of the fourteenth century were filled with violent upheaval caused by domestic and foreign wars, family hatreds, the plague, and changing social conditions. As Alfonso XFs minority came to an end, Castile resumed its position of predominance in peninsular affairs...

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18. Government, 1212–1369

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pp. 428-458

As a result of the rapid reconquest in the thirteenth century all the Christian kingdoms, with the exception of Castile, reached the frontiers they were to retain until modern times. Territorial expansion created kingdoms with marked internal differences of language, customs, laws...

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19. Society and the Economy, 1212–1369

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pp. 459-486

Several major changes affected the population of the peninsula during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The remarkable success of the reconquest resulted in the incorporation of large numbers of Muslims and Jews into the Christian states. Many Muslims, however, preferred...

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20. Religion and Culture, 1212–1369

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pp. 487-520

Medieval civilization attained its apogee in the thirteenth century, but then entered upon a time of change in which older values and ideas were challenged, debated, and sometimes rejected. The fortunes of the papacy graphically illustrate this point. The popes of the thirteenth...

Part V. The Struggle for Peninsular Union, 1369–1479

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21. The Early Trastámaras

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pp. 523-548

The half-century following Enrique of Trastamara's triumph on the field of Montiel in 1369 witnessed important dynastic changes. His own family, after winning the Castilian throne, fought off the attempts of the neighboring states to drive them out, and then embarked upon a

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22. The Hegemony of the Trastámaras

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pp. 549-577

In the sixty years following the death of Fernando de Antequera the ideal of peninsular union came close to realization, though turmoil threatened to destroy monarchy in Castile and Aragon. The Trastâmara family continued their policy of aggrandizement by marriage...

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23. Government, 1369–1479

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pp. 578-603

In the later medieval centuries western Europeans became aware once again of the ancient concept of the state as described by Aristotle in his Politics and as exemplified by the Roman empire. Declaring man to be both a social and a political animal, Aristotle argued that government...

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24. Society and the Economy, 1369–1479

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pp. 604-625

In the last century of the medieval era there were no substantial external additions to the peninsular population nor were there vast colonizing movements as in the past. The frontiers remained comparatively stable, and the number of those uprooted by the reconquest...

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25. Religion and Culture, 1369–1479

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pp. 626-654

Upheaval in nearly every aspect of life was the principal characteristic of the last century of the Middle Ages. Protests against the established order and authorities occurred in most parts of Europe, taking the form of peasant revolts, proletarian uprisings, aristocratic revolutions, dynastic...

Epilogue

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The Catholic Kings and the Perfect Prince

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pp. 657-676

After more than a century of upheaval and violent change, the Middle Ages came to a close. As characteristic signs of the transition from the old to the new, historians have pointed to the emergence of national monarchies, the development of capitalism, the discovery and exploration

Genealogical Charts

1. Umayyad Emirs and Caliphs of Cordoba, 756–1031

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p. 678

2. Kings of Asturias-Leon to 1037

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p. 678

3. Rulers of Navarre, Aragon, and Barcelona to 1035

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p. 679

4. Rulers of Portugal, Leon, and Castile, 1035–1214

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p. 679

5. Rulers of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia, and Provence, 1035–1214

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p. 680

6. Kings of Navarre, 1194–1512

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p. 680

7. Kings of Leon-Castile, 1214–1504

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p. 681

8. Kings of Portugal, 1211–1521

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p. 681

9. Kings of Aragon, 1213–1516

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p. 682

10. The Nasrid Kings of Granada, 1232–1492

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p. 682

Bibliography

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p. 683

Index

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pp. 706-728

Image Plates

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