Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xiv

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

I was fitfully writing a new lecture in September 1994 when the technician for my elk study on private timberland, which was also new, called me. He was excited. In the process of conducting systematic surveys to locate recent elk sign (tracks and feces), he had decided to see if he could stalk an elk group. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) personnel were integral to conducting my long-term study. My first RNSP contact was Howard Sakai. Through Howard I became familiar with other RNSP personnel involved in wildlife management. About six years into the study Howard retired and my new contact person became, and still is, Kristin Schmidt. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-23

I did not know when and how it was going to happen but I did know that I was going to study these elk. This thought occurred in August 1993, while watching elk in Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP). At the time, I had been in the area for only 2 years. I was a full-time lecturer with a heavy teaching load and little time for what I truly wanted to do—research. ...

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1. Elk History and Notes on Large Predators

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pp. 24-37

In ecological studies, what has gone on in the past can dictate what is observed in the present. Which leads me to thoughts on how far back in history I should go? Since the study is about elk, the beginning is the origin of the species.
Cervus elaphus (i.e., North American elk) probably originated during the late Miocene and early Pliocene (about 5–7 million years ago) ...

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2. Techniques, Counts, and Population Estimates

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pp. 38-61

Some data were collected year-round (e.g., Fig. 0.5) but the bulk were collected in the winter, primarily January but also February through April. Winter was the field season for two main reasons. One, in winter spatial patterns should be more influenced by resource use and less by reproductive activities. ...

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3. Distribution

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pp. 62-84

The distribution of a population needs to be delineated to observe, measure, and record something about the herd. Open habitat is strongly tied to the distribution of individual elk in the forested landscapes of north-coastal California (Franklin et al., 1975; Harper et al., 1967; Weckerly, 2005). ...

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4. The Unexpected: Population Irruption

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pp. 85-108

Professor Aldo Leopold (1943) was the first to describe a complex pattern of population dynamics displayed by four deer (Odocoileus) populations: one was on the Kaibab plateau, Arizona, and the other three were in the upper Midwest. He labeled the complex pattern “irruptive dynamics.” Perhaps because of the complexity, irruptive dynamics were defined by four stages (Fig. 4.1). ...

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5. The Unexpected: Population Extinction

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pp. 109-126

I was surprised to witness the local extinction (simply referred to as extinction hereafter). The documentation on the Boyes herd indicated that it had been around longer than most herds in the RNSP and its abundance seemed to be high enough such that there was no discussion about extinction (Harn, 1958; Kristan, 1992; Lieb, 1973). ...

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6. Population Dynamics and K Carrying Capacity of Remaining Herds

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pp. 127-143

Bald Hills, Gold Bluffs, Levee, and SOC (the herd that inhabited an area including the old South Operations Center of Redwood National Park) were the remaining herds (Fig. 1.5, 1.6). I viewed the population dynamics of these herds as “normal” for large herbivores. Realizing that normal is in the eyes of the beholder, ...

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7. Conservation and Management

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pp. 144-160

One of the fundamental decisions was seemingly mundane: how to define a population. Yet, how I defined a population had profound implications for what I could examine in the data and the patterns I detected. I decided to go with a collection of socially bonded females, juveniles, and subadult males—a herd. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 161-176

About the Author

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pp. 177-178

Index

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pp. 179-190