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Bilingual Education

Southeast Asian Perspectives

Angela M.Y. Lin,N.G. Daunton , Evelyn Y.F. Man

Publication Year: 2009

This book aims at meeting this urgent need by discussing, in accessible language, research findings on key concepts of bilingual education, and recent developments of bilingual education policies in Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Teachers, students and researchers in the areas of bilingual education, language policy and planning (LPP), and studies of medium of instruction policy and practice both in Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian contexts will benefit from the book.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU


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p. v

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pp. vii-x

Every society invests a significant proportion of its economic resources in educating its youth. Despite the fact that there will usually be no economic return on this investment for at least twelve years after students enter school, there is consensus in most societies among business interests, policymakers, and the wider community regarding the importance of education for ensuring future economic productivity and social stability. ...

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pp. xi-xii

Questions regarding whether a  first or a second/foreign language should be used as a medium of instruction (MOI) in schools (and if yes, for whom, and when) have been enthusiastically debated in recent years in Hong Kong. The public debates, however, have largely not been able to benefit from the existing international body of research in bilingual and immersion education or the educational experiences of other regions. ...

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1 - Language Policy and Planning in Southeast Asian Contexts

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pp. 1-9

In this chapter, debates revolving around the global spread of English, linguistic imperialism, World Englishes and the theories of postcolonial performativity are introduced. Is English a cultural imperialistic tool of the West, or is English being increasingly hybridized and used for their own daily purposes by many Southeast Asian people? How is language policy and planning (LPP) related to the creation of social and educational (in)equalities? The chapter discusses these issues and concludes with the proposal that Southeast Asian postcolonial societies need to develop their own LPP frameworks. ...

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2 - Bilingual Education in Different Contexts: Principles and Practice

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pp. 11-39

This chapter presents an overview of the theoretical and empirical literature of bilingual education which is relevant to an understanding of how a second or foreign language (L2) can be used as a medium of instruction in schools for the dual goal of achieving bilingualism/biliteracy and cognitive/academic learning. Major theories, principles, concepts and programme options/models in bilingual education are delineated. The factors and conditions promoting or inhibiting success in bilingual education are critically reviewed. Their implications for Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian contexts are discussed. ...

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3 - Key Issues in Immersion Education: Implications for Hong Kong

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pp. 41-71

The well-documented success of French immersion graduates (those who remain in the programme tend to be successful) might have masked a problem that has characterized early French immersion ever since its inception: the relatively high rate of student dropout from the programme due to academic or behavioural problems. Keep (1993), for example, reports that, in the province of Alberta between 1983 and 1984 and between 1990 and 1991, attrition rates from immersion ranged from 43% to 68% by Grade 6, 58% to 83% by Grade 9, and 88% to 97% by Grade 12. ...

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4 - History and Development of Bilingual Education in Hong Kong

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pp. 73-85

In this chapter, a historical account of the development of the language-ineducation (LIE) policy in Hong Kong is provided. The socio-political context is also described, to situate this policy in the historical context. Major policy developments, including the MIGA exercise introduced in 1994, the mandatory linguistic streaming policy introduced in 1998, and recent policy revisions, are also discussed. We make the observation that Hong Kong’s postcolonial LIE policy has been plagued with charges of elitism and social stratifying effects. ...

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5 - Research on Bilingual Education in Hong Kong

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pp. 87-103

In this chapter, an overview of key empirical studies conducted on issues related to the medium of instruction in Hong Kong schools is presented. The overview follows a chronological order and covers key studies in four main periods: (1) from the 1970s to the early 1980s, (2) the 1980s, (3) the 1990s, and (4) the 2000s. ...

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6 - Negotiating between Nationalist and Globalization Agendas: Lessons from the Divergent Paths of Singapore and Malaysia

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pp. 105-117

In this chapter the historical development of bilingual education policy and practice in Singapore is first outlined. In particular, we discuss how what started out in Singapore as a bilingual education policy stressing the development of both the English language and the heritage languages has gradually become a weak form of bilingual education, the heritage languages maintained only as a subject while all other subjects are taught in English. ...

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7 - Contexts of Language Policy and Planning in Southeast Asian Societies: Need for Innovative Approaches

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pp. 119-141

In this chapter a brief review of approaches to LPP is provided. Then a new LPP framework specifically useful for understanding bilingual education in Southeast Asian contexts is proposed. The cases of Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia are discussed in light of this framework, and innovative approaches to bilingual education are discussed with a view to exploring possible fruitful directions for tackling LPP difficulties and dilemmas experienced in these societies. ...


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pp. 143-158


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pp. 159-162

E-ISBN-13: 9789888052073
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622099586

Page Count: 176
Publication Year: 2009

OCLC Number: 650591715
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Bilingual Education

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Subject Headings

  • Education, Bilingual -- China -- Hong Kong.
  • Education, Bilingual -- Southeast Asia.
  • Education, Bilingual -- Government policy -- Southeast Asia.
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