Cover

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Half Title, Series Page, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

I owe many thanks and much gratitude to the numerous institutions, colleagues, and friends who have supported me during my research and writing of this book. They have helped me transform an abstract idea into material pages between two covers. I am deeply grateful for the support and encouragement I have received over the years, without which I would not have been able to bring this project to fruition. ...

Abbreviations

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pp. ix-x

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-12

In a sworn affidavit to the Department of Justice in 1961, civil rights leader Ralph Abernathy testified on his repeated inability to use the facilities at Dannelly Field Airport terminal in Montgomery, Alabama, during the 1950s. Abernathy related a confrontation with the airport manager over access to the “whites only” drinking fountain. ...

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2. The Emergence of the Jim Crow Airport

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pp. 13-35

The segregation of airport terminal buildings emerged as a pattern in the late 1940s. As the number of airports in the South grew, and as airports expanded their facilities to accommodate the increase in passengers, this relatively new building type was incorporated into the existing spatial order of white supremacy. ...

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3. On Location: Direct Action against Airport Segregation

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pp. 36-60

Civil rights advocates understood that the fight against airport segregation would have to be waged on a case-by-case basis, airport by airport, just like the fight against other forms of racial segregation. This case-by-case approach had two dimensions: nonviolent direct action, a new protest strategy that emerged from the civil rights movement in the second half of the 1950s; ...

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4. In the Courts: Private Litigation as a Road to Desegregation

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pp. 61-89

Civil rights activists resisted the incorporation of airports into the southern landscapes of racism by challenging Jim Crow on site at airport terminals. They also tackled the issue in another location: in the federal courts. They did so in an effort designed to change cultural landscapes on the ground. ...

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5. Changing the Law of the Land: Regulatory and Statutory Reform

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pp. 90-111

Direct action protest was not only flanked by efforts to challenge airport segregation in the courts. With an urgency that increased in the late 1950s and early 1960s, civil rights activists also tried to put pressure on the federal government and its regulatory agencies. They identified statutory and regulatory reform as tools in the fight against racial discrimination at Jim Crow airports. ...

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6. Back in the Courts: Federal Antisegregation Lawsuits

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pp. 112-134

Government activities on integration involved not only the FAA and Congress but also the Department of Justice. Besides assisting the FAA with legal advice in changing the agency’s policy regulations, the Justice Department also played a role itself in the struggle for integration of airports. ...

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7. Conclusion

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pp. 135-142

As Don Thomas was about to leave the passenger terminal at Birmingham Municipal Airport on February 17, 1965, he was harassed by a group of young white men. They blocked his passage walking through the lobby and then prevented him from using the exit by pushing against the door. Thomas later reported, “Standing face to face with a glass door separating us, ...

Notes

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pp. 143-184

Bibliography

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pp. 185-200

Index

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pp. 201-207