Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright Page

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xiv

Aging is a complex and varied experience, influenced by the social context in which it takes place. Riley has noted: "There is no pure process of aging-the ways in which children enter kindergarten, or adolescents move into adulthood, or older people retire are not preordained. In this view, the life course is not fixed, but widely flexible" (1978:41). This statement reminds us that the nature and consequences of aging are shaped by many factors and that there will be variability within the older population in the nature and implications of these factors....

read more

1. Aging in the Human Ecosystem

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-19

Human choice and action take place in socially bounded environments that set the conditions under which people must operate in the community. These environments make some acts more possible than others and some choices more plausible than others. Aging, like other aspects of human experience, is affected by these environments. The present book explores the influences of environments on the lives of older individuals....

read more

2. Methods of Study

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 20-37

Chapter 1 introduced a wide range of theoretical issues organized around the five components of the human ecosystem. These issues were addressed in an interview survey, with both the sample and the interview constructed to allow depth and detail. This chapter describes the sample, the variables incorporated in the interview, and the analytic techniques used to address the issues in Chapter 1....

read more

3. The Neighborhood as a Place for Aging

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 38-74

It is obvious that the death of the neighborhood envisioned by a number of urban soothsayers in the 1960s and 1970s has not come to pass. Residential location still matters. The neighborhood place and space encourages certain behaviors while constraining others. At the same time, it is apparent that social ties and recreation and shopping patterns are less constrained by the friction of space than ever before. This lowered constraint is probably less true for the elderly than for...

read more

4. The Interpersonal Environment: Characteristics and Consequences of Support Networks

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 75-123

Chapter 3 focused on the ecological significance of residential and neighborhood context. In addition to spatial dimensions of the environment for aging, Lawton's (1980) five components of the human ecosystem (discussed in Chapter 1) remind us of the significance of the interpersonal environment or network of significant others. Informal networks and supports have been receiving increased attention from sociologists and have also been of interest to gerontologists for some time (Antonucci, 1985; Ward, 1985). This interest reflects an...

read more

5. The Social Context of Aging: Orientations to Aging and Age Peers

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 124-161

Thus far we have discussed the role of environmental factors, particularly the neighborhood, in the lives of older people, and the possible contributions of informal networks to well-being. We now turn to a discussion of age-related attitudes, including age identification and aging-group consciousness, and socialization for old age. These topics relate to our earlier discussions in two ways. First, orientations toward age constitute a social-psychological dimension of the environment within which individuals age. These individual orientations arise...

read more

6. Age Patterns for Residential Places and Social Spaces and Their Consequences

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 162-200

In our earlier discussions we have seen the heightened effect of environmental factors in the lives of older persons. We have also noted the importance of social networks and particularly the localized support represented by neighbors. In this chapter we turn our attention to the age structure of the environment of older people, focusing on the age composition of both their neighborhoods and their informal networks. There is reason to believe that access to age peers yields benefits at any age but particularly in later life. Indeed, the possible...

read more

7. Implications and Conclusions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 201-209

The general theme of this book is that aging is a contextual process; the nature and consequences of aging depend on the environment within which it occurs. This is not to say that the elderly are at the "mercy" of their environment. Elder (1981) has described the life course as both contextual and transactional, the latter term recognizing that individuals do exercise choice in shaping their own lives. The findings described in this book reflect both the contextual and the transactional...

Appendix A: Interview

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 210-241

Appendix B: Tract Data

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 242

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 243-253

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 254-257