Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Preface

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pp. ix-xvi

Abbreviations and Acronyms in the Text

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pp. xvii-xviii

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1. Real Democracy Is Found on the Links: African Americans and the Origins of Golf in the United States

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pp. 1-39

Though most identify fifteenth-century Scotland as the birthplace of golf, there remains some debate over the game’s early origins. One popular theory holds that golf evolved from the Dutch kolven (or kolf ), a game played on ice in the Netherlands as early as the 1400s, while another claims that golf derives from the ancient Roman game ...

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2. One Hears of Negro Country Clubs: Golfing the Great Migration and Harlem Renaissance

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pp. 40-83

“There has been a very noticeable increase in golf,” reported the Associated Negro Press in its 1927 annual survey of black progress.2 The brief line—buried in a lengthy, wide-ranging report outlining African American achievements in politics, business, education, and entertainment—was nevertheless important, ...

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3. Our Masters: The Development of the United Golfers Association

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pp. 84-140

Beginning in 1926 and lasting into the 1980s an important entity—long overlooked by fans and historians—organized a national golf tour open to all players regardless of their race. The organization, called the United Golfers Association for most of its life, provided thousands of African American players—men and women, ...

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4. I Will Take Your Own Golf Stick and Wham the World: Golf and the Postwar Civil Rights Movement

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pp. 141-187

World War II was a watershed for the twentieth-century civil rights movement. The war disrupted American society, emboldened many of the 1.2 million black Americans who served around the world, and prompted all citizens to redefine the nature of their democracy. For the same reasons, the war played a major role in expanding the black community’s interest in golf. ...

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5. Guns in Their Golf Bags: Black Power on the Links

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pp. 188-236

On September 6, 1972, five men arrived at St. Croix’s Fountain Valley Golf Club armed with an array of pistols, shotguns, and machine guns. Rounding up white golfers and black workers, they robbed the pro shop, hurled racial insults at the whites, and started shooting, murdering eight on the spot and wounding four others. ...

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6. Thai People Don’t Get Hate Mail: Race and Golf in the Age of Tiger Woods?

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pp. 237-270

Almost 50 million people saw Tiger Woods win the Masters in 1997, by far the most to ever watch a golf tournament.2 Yet what viewers first embraced as a simple, compelling story has since grown increasingly hard to understand. The 1997 Masters—a triumphant, even unifying event in its day— ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 271-272

A number of individuals helped make this project happen, including some who provided valuable feedback on draft chapters and others who helped track down key information or rare images. I can’t name everyone, unfortunately, but I would like to thank a few in particular, beginning with Chuck Grench and the staff at the University of North Carolina Press for their tremendous support ...

Notes

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pp. 273-320

Bibliography

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pp. 321-342

Index

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pp. 343-363