Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface to the Revised Edition

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pp. ix-xvi

Readers of the first edition (1998) will find that the overall project of the book remains the same, as do all its central philosophical claims, as well as the structure of the arguments for those claims. But there are five substantial changes. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

References to individuals who have commented helpfully on portions of the manuscript appear at the end of the relevant commentaries—to chapters 3, 5, 6, and 7, and to the appendix. ...

Part One: The Way Things Stand

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1. The Conceit

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pp. 3-4

After five hundred years of prominence in Greek and Roman antiquity, Stoic ethics was pillaged by theology and effaced by evangelical and imperial Christianity. A few Stoic philosophers survived, most of them by providing analgesics for use in pastoral counseling, the military, and what then passed for medicine and psychotherapy. ...

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2. A New Agenda for Stoic Ethics

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pp. 5-7

In academic philosophy, Stoicism has long been identified with a discredited form of naturalistic ethics—one in which the supreme principle is “follow nature.” The ancient Stoics apparently believed that nature was a teleological system—a vast goal-oriented entity. ...

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3. The Ruins of Doctrine

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pp. 8-34

To many of our critics, it seems that what is defensible in stoic ethics is not unique to it, but merely a reprise of various ideas drawn from other ancient sources. What is uniquely stoic, they say, is only a collection of very peculiar and ultimately indefensible doctrines. We continue to hold most of those peculiar doctrines. ...

Part Two: The Way Things Might Go

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4. Normative Logic

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pp. 37-45

This short chapter, together with its somewhat more elaborate appendix and commentary at the end of the book, lays out in a formal way the practical logic sketched informally in Part One. It tests that sketch for hidden assumptions and consistency and is a further explanation of how stoics propose to get from “is” to “ought.” ...

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5. Following the Facts

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pp. 46-88

Slogans oversimplify, and in a contentious intellectual environment they invite misunderstanding. The environment for stoics has always been a contentious one, fostered in antiquity by vigorous disputes within the tradition, and it was clear even then that stoic ethics would probably be better off without its “follow nature” slogan. ...

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6. Virtue

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pp. 89-184

In antiquity, Stoics were notorious for their hard doctrines about virtue: that it was one thing, not many; that it alone was good, all other things being merely rank-ordered relative to each other (as “preferred” or not) for the sake of the good; that virtue was sufficient for happiness even on the rack; and that it did not admit of degrees. ...

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7. Happiness

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pp. 155-192

Stoics put the discussion of happiness at the end of their ethical concerns and are sometimes impatient with protracted discussions of it. Even children rarely seek happiness directly, in the sense of directly seeking pleasant mental states. And when that narrow sense of happiness (as pleasant affect) is replaced ...

Appendix. A Calculus for Normative Logic

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pp. 193-224

Postscript to the Revised Edition

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pp. 225-238

Bibliography

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pp. 239-252

Index

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pp. 253-264