Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This book has been a work in progress for a long, long time. As editors, we are especially grateful to the contributing authors for engaging with these topics— it has been a privilege working with all of you. We are also thankful to the many colleagues and friends who have supported this work, contributing...

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Introduction: Setting the Context: Sexuality, Reproductive Health, and Medical Technologies in the Middle East and North Africa

Angel M. Foster and L. L. Wynn

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pp. 1-12

To paraphrase Claude Lévi-Strauss (as anthropologists are wont to do), technologies are “good to think” with (Lévi-Strauss 1969, 162). That is because technologies are “society made durable” (Latour 1990). This is nowhere more true than with sexual and reproductive health technologies. Emerging reproductive...

I. Preventing and Terminating Pregnancy

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1. Is There an Islamic IUD? Exploring the Acceptability of a Hormone-Releasing Intrauterine Device in Egypt

Ahmed Ragaa Abdel-Hameed Ragab

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pp. 15-26

The intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most effective contraceptive methods currently available. A small device inserted into the uterus by a trained health-care provider, the copper-T IUD can provide contraceptive benefit for up to twelve years. The effectiveness of the method owes much to the fact that...

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2. Introducing Emergency Contraception in Morocco: A Slow Start after a Long Journey

Elena Chopyak

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pp. 27-43

Progestin-only emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), already long available in Tunisia, Iran, Lebanon, and Turkey, were first registered and distributed in Morocco in 2008. In her first official act as minister of health, Yasmina Baddou approved the registration of NorLevo®, the first postcoital contraceptive...

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3. Mifepristone in Tunisia: A Model for Expanding Access to Medication Abortion

Angel M. Foster

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pp. 44-57

The legal status of abortion varies considerably across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In Tunisia and Turkey, first trimester abortion is legal and provided by the public sector, whereas in Yemen and the United Arab Emirates, abortion is prohibited in almost all circumstances. Throughout the...

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4. Navigating Barriers to Abortion Access: Misoprostol in the West Bank

Francoise Daoud and Angel M. Foster

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pp. 58-68

In the wake of the Second Intifada (uprising) in 2000, the previously fragile health services in the West Bank deteriorated considerably. The creation of the vast concrete wall dividing occupied Palestinian villages from each other and from Israeli settlements, frequent curfews and road closures, increased

II. Achieving Pregnancy and Parenthood

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5. "Worse comes to worst, I have a safety net": Fertility Preservation among Young, Single, Jewish Breast Cancer Patients in Israel

Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli, Efrat Dagan, and Suzi Modiano Gattegno

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pp. 71-86

Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among women in developed countries (Curado et al. 2007), including Israel, where every year about four thousand new breast cancer patients are diagnosed. Roughly 250 (approximately 7 percent) of these are women under the age of forty (Israeli Ministry...

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6. The "ART" of Making Babies Using In Vitro Fertilization: Assisted Reproduction Technologies in the United Arab Emirates

Shirin Karsan

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pp. 87-98

For millions of couples around the world, the inability to have children is a personal tragedy. For a significant proportion, the private agony is compounded by social stigma, which can have serious and far-reaching consequences (Cui 2010). This is particularly apparent in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a...

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7. Wanted Babies, Excess Fetuses: The Middle East's In Vitro Fertilization, High-Order Multiple Pregnancy, Fetal Reduction Nexus

Marcia C. Inhorn

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pp. 99-111

Although rarely acknowledged by global health agencies, infertility is an important reproductive health problem, affecting between 50 million and 185 million people worldwide (Boivin et al. 2007; Mascarenhas et al. 2012; Rutstein and Shah 2004). Approximately 8 percent to 12 percent of reproductive...

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8. Birthing Bodies, Pregnant Selves: Gestational Surrogates, Intended Mothers, and Distributed Maternity in Israel

Elly Teman

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pp. 112-121

One of the primary issues theorized in academic and policy debates about surrogate motherhood is the deconstruction of the perceived unity of the maternal role into at least three potential mothers: genetic, gestational, and social. This ambiguous definition of maternity has challenged policymakers...

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9. C-Sections as a Nefarious Plot: The Politics of Pronatalism in Turkey

Katrina MacFarlane

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pp. 122-134

Since the advent of its use in the nineteenth century, the Cesarean section (C-section) has been a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health. Although the origins of the Cesarean date back well before the 1800s, the procedure became largely successful at decreasing maternal and infant mortality only...

III. Engaging Sex and Sexuality

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10. HPV Vaccine Uptake in Lebanon: A Vicious Cycle of Misinformation, Stigma, and Prohibitive Costs

Faysal El-Kak

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pp. 137-144

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an extremely common virus that is spread through sexual contact. In most cases the virus has no physical manifestation in the body, although some strains can result in visible skin lesions such as warts. Most of these HPV infections resolve on their own with time. However...

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11. Hymenoplasty in Contemporary Iran: Liminality and the Embodiment of Contested Discourses

Azal Ahmadi

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pp. 145-158

Raised in a conservative milieu that places a high premium on female premarital virginity, yet embracing a relatively modern gender ideology in their intimate lives, sexually active young women in Iran seeking marriage encounter a dilemma in body politics (Lock and Kaufert 1998; Cindoglu 1997)...

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12. "Viagra Soup": Consumer Fantasies and Masculinity in Portrayals of Erectile Dysfunction Drugs in Cairo, Egypt

L. L. Wynn

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pp. 159-171

When new reproductive health technologies emerge, the cultural work that occurs around interpreting them and integrating them into existing social worlds highlights previously unremarked cultural norms, social relationships and hierarchies, and political economic structures in a society. Beyond their...

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13. Sex Toys and the Politics of Pleasure in Morocco

Jessica Marie Newman

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pp. 172-185

On April 12, 2012, Imad El Idrissa was sentenced to eight months in prison and issued a fine of 10,000 Moroccan Dirhams (roughly US$1,200) for the “importation, possession, and exhibition of licentious products (vibrators, for example) and the distribution of flyers and photos contrary to morality...

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14. Narratives of Gender Transformation Practices for Transgender Women in Diyarbakir, Turkey

M. A. Sanders

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pp. 186-202

Gül regularly passes as a young cisgender woman from Diyarbakir or any major metropolitan city in Turkey, but as a transgender woman, or lubunya, she lives under the constant threat of being discovered by her extended family and falling victim to their repeated threats of violence.1 In an interview, Gül...

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Conclusion. Individual, Community, Religion, State: Technology at the Intersection

Donna Lee Bowen

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pp. 203-212

As L. L. Wynn and Angel Foster explain in their introduction, technology has an intimate relationship with reproductive health and represents “literally and figuratively life and death.” Reproduction and sex touch the lives of the vast majority of people, and the moral boundaries that societies construct around...

Acronyms and Abbreviations

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pp. 213-214

Glossary of Foreign Terms

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pp. 215-216

Bibliography

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pp. 217-242

Contributors

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pp. 243-244

Index

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pp. 245-252