Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

This book has a particularly long story, divided into two phases separated by a six-year interlude. The first phase was completed when I defended my dissertation on the history of regime change and military interventions in Greece and Turkey for my PhD studies at the University of Virginia. After my defense in spring 2007, I started working in Turkey and had to set aside my dissertation to receive my associate professorship in the Turkish system. I worked on journal articles and a Turkish book on contemporary Turkish...

Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xvi

Note on Transliteration

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pp. xvii-xviii

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1. Introduction: Cases, Concepts, Political Actors, and Interests

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pp. 1-20

On 27 April 1967, in his first public statement after taking over the Greek government, Colonel Papadopoulos claimed that the military had intervened to prevent the threat of anarchy. In a later interview, his colleague and one of the three leaders of the junta, Brigadier General Stylianos Pattakos, reiterated that the country had suffered from political instability and communist threat prior to the intervention.1 Similarly, in Turkey, when the armed forces took over the government on 12 September 1980, they...

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2. A Theory of Regime Change and Military Interventions

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pp. 21-52

How can we explain democratic and authoritarian regimes, their consolidation and short-lived coups in Greece and Turkey from the interwar period until when the militaries lost their powers? In this chapter, I offer a framework, based on the costs of toleration and suppression, to explain regime change. I then adapt and develop this framework to theorize regimes, their consolidation, and military interventions. After outlining the theory, I detail the components and determinants of the costs of toleration and suppression....

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3. Greece between 1922 and 1974: From the National Schism to the Collapse of the Junta

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pp. 53-76

From its independence until the 1970s, Greece was politically an unstable country, experiencing several coups, unconsolidated democratic periods, authoritarian episodes, and a civil war. In this chapter, I will investigate the odyssey of Greece toward the consolidated democracy established in the wake of the colonels’ junta. More specifically, utilizing the theory put forward in chapter 2, I will examine three regimes in Greece: the unconsolidated democracy and the coups of the interwar years, the consolidated Metaxas regime of 1936, and the unconsolidated colonels’ junta....

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4. Turkey between 1923 and 1983: From the Republic to Military Tutelage

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pp. 77-105

The Turkish Republic was founded after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the First World War. On 24 July 1923, the Lausanne Convention ended the war for the Ankara government and marked the international recognition of the new state. The regime of the republic became authoritarian and consolidated in the 1930s, until the strengthening of the business elites in the mid-1940s. Turkey made a transition to democracy in 1950 and did not revert to full authoritarianism again. Despite many years of free and...

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5. Party-Voter Relations: Consolidation and Deconsolidation of Democracy in Greece

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pp. 106-131

After the 1981 elections, Greek democracy consolidated. For three decades, all significant groups continued unabated in their preference for the regime, appearing to put an end to decades of uncertainty. But in 2009, a severe fiscal crisis, triggered by the world financial crisis of 2008, shook the Greek economy and eventually afflicted the political party system. When the Panhellenic Socialist Movement and New Democracy lost their dominance in parliament in the 2012 elections, a coalition government was established for the...

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6. More of the Same? Turkey under Coalition Governments and One-Party Dominance

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pp. 132-157

Turkish democracy did not consolidate in the aftermath of the 1980 military coup. On the contrary, the military increased its political powers and prerogatives. Another military intervention in 1997, precipitated by elite conflict during the years of coalition governments, showed the continuing preeminence of the military and precarious support for democracy in Turkish politics.1 In 2001, Turkey experienced the worst financial debacle in its history. Similar to events in Greece in the aftermath of such a crisis, the Turkish...

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7. Applying the Theory to Contemporary Cases of Military Rule: Thailand and Egypt

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pp. 158-182

Although military interventions seem like something from the distant past, 15 successful cases of putsches were reported between 2000 and 2014 worldwide. When 20 attempted interventions, 20 plots thwarted by government officials, and 13 allegations are added to this number, it is clear that, in many nations, especially in Africa and Asia, military interventions are not obsolete.1 In this chapter, I demonstrate that the theory detailed in chapter 2 and attained from the analysis of Greece and Turkey from the interwar period...

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8. Conclusion: The Key Premises

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pp. 183-194

Primarily focusing on Greek and Turkish history and secondarily overviewing the last military interventions in Egypt and Thailand, this book sought to find the origins of various types of authoritarian and democratic regimes in countries where the military is a significant political actor. Analyzing power balances in society and the regime preferences of the armed forces, politicians, and economic elites, the book suggested a theoretical framework for understanding when elites repress or tolerate their opposition. In this...

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Afterword: The Failed Military Intervention in Turkey on 15 July 2016

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pp. 195-200

I finished writing the main body of this book in December 2015 and made a couple of relatively minor changes in April 2016. I decided not to incorporate new developments after December 2015, knowing that I otherwise would not be able to call the book done. A failed military intervention took place in Turkey on 15 July 2016, when the book was “out of my hands.” Integrating this last event into the book’s chapters was an impossible task, both because the book was finished and because the developments were still too fresh to properly...

Appendix: Interviews with Greek and Turkish Elites

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pp. 201-218

Notes

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pp. 219-266

References

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pp. 267-296

Index

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pp. 297-310